The Landscape Speaks

 

Scott Haskins, After Black Saturday Fires, 2015.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project 3
 

Goal

Craft artful images of various landscapes under a variety of lighting conditions.
 
Learn
How how to use the Zone System to determine correct exposure and development.
 
Shot Minimum - at least three shots of each:
Composition includes figures, but landscape dominates
Composition does not include figures
Natural subject that is close to the camera
Natural subject that is far from the camera
Natural subject that is moving
Artificially lit scene
Low light scene
Brightly lit scene
Focus on man-made subject in the landscape
Focus on historical subject in the landscape
Funny or creative / experimental image
Print Minimum
Contact Sheet for each roll of film developed for this project
4 photos that tell a story about landscape
Ansel Adams, Monolith Face of Half Dome, 1927.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paul Strand, Wall Street, 1915.
Andreas Gursky, Hong Kong, Grand Hyatt Park, 2006.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Walker Evans, Joe's Auto Graveyard, Pennsylvania, 1935.
Dust Storm Approaching, KS, 1935.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sally Mann, Deep South 3, 1998.
Sally Mann, Deep South 4, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ken Gonzales Day, Two Men Were Found on a Tree, 2005.
Ken Gonzales Day, Nightfall, 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daniel Naude, Animal Farm, Africanis 2, 2008.
Daniel Naude, Animal Farm, Africanis 8, 2008.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julie Shafer, Conquest of the Vertical, 300 Miles from Eureka!, 2012.
Julie Shafer, Conquest of the Vertical, 700 Miles from Eureka!, 2012.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Zone System
a black-and-white photographic print represents the visual world as a series of tones ranging from black to white.
zones directly relate to exposure
visualization relates to final print

 

 

The Zone System
Simple concept - a black-and-white photographic print represents the visual world as a series of tones ranging from black to white.
zones directly relate to exposure
visualization relates to final print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lee Friedlander, Baltimore, c. 1960.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Remember the rule - expose for shadows develop for highlights
 
zones directly relate to exposure
visualization relates to final print
 
In a scene— in the field— each zone represents a doubling or halving of the luminance— the light reflected from the subject— or equivalently, a difference of one f-stop. The 8 steps between the nine zones represent a luminance range of 256 (28), typical for landscapes on sunny days and somewhat less than negative film can capture. The actual tonal range of scenes can, of course, be very different.
In a print, zone 1 is pure black, zone 9 is pure white, and zone 5 is subjective middle gray, corresponding to a reflectance of about 18%. On good photographic paper, pure white is a little over 90% reflectance and pure black is about 1 – 2% reflectance. The maximum luminance range is around 50 to 100, equivalent to about 6 zones; a good deal less than the 8 hypothetical zones in the original scene. Since the difference between subjective middle gray (18% reflectance) and white (a little over 90%) is a factor of 5, equivalent to only 2.3 f-stops, highlight tones in a print tend to be compressed with respect to tones in a scene. A zone chart printed on paper therefore involves a degree of compromise involving the application of an "S" curve.
Zone System Scale with Stop Details

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Before you shoot your next roll of film, ask yourself a question.
Perhaps a question that is difficult to answer or that you have avoided contemplating.

 

Amir Zaki, Cliff House 19, 2015.
Amir Zaki, Time Moves Still, Tree 31, 2013.