Printing Your Film

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making a Contact Print
   
Supplies:
Negatives in sheet
Printing frame
1 sheet photo paper
 
Prepare
Before removing paper from envelope, test light & timer
Place negatives, emulsion side down, on photo paper
Place paper & negatives into printing frame
 
Make Exposure
Set enlarger lens to f11
Raise enlarger head to expose entire sheet
Set timer for 8 to 10 seconds (you may have to adjust time)
Make exposure
 
Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keefe, 1918.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Develop
Take paper out of frame
Slide paper into developer, emulsion side down
Turn paper over and agitate for 90 sec
Take paper out of developer and let drip 5 sec
Stop Bath
Immerse paper in stop bath for 30 sec while agitating
Take paper out of stop bath and drip for 2 sec
 
Fix
Slip paper into fixer and agitate frequently for 1 min
At this point, you can check your print by placing it in a tray and walking out to hallway
Place print back in fixer and agitate occasionally for 5 min
 
Wash
Place print in wash tray for at least 5 min
 
Paul Strand, Blind, 1916.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making Your First Print

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making a Test Exposure
   
Supplies:
Negative
Negative carrier
Printing frame
1 sheet photo paper
 
Prepare
  • Check negative for dust and prints in light, clean if necessary
  • Place negative in carrier emulsion side down
 
  • Using cutter inside dark room, cut paper into 4, 4 X 5 squares
  • Return test squares to black envelope
 
  • Set enlarger lens to widest opening (lowest f-number)
  • Turn on enlarger and make sure that image will project large enough to cover 8 X 10 paper.
  • Focus image on table
  • Turn off enlarger and make sure timer is not set
 
Make Exposure
  • Change enlarger lens opening to f11
  • Place test strip under easel glass diagonal to your picture plane
  • Make 5 sec exposure to entire strip
  • Cover 4/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
  • Cover 3/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
  • Cover 2/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
  • Cover 1/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
 
Exposure Test Strip

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Develop Your Test Exposure
   
Developer
  • Take square out of frame
  • Slide strip into developer, emulsion side down
  • Turn strip over and agitate for 90 sec
  • Take strip out of developer and let drip 5 sec
 
Stop Bath
  • Immerse strip in stop bath for 30 sec while agitating
  • Take stripout of stop bath and drip for 2 sec
 
Fix
  • Slip strip into fixer and agitate 1 min
  • At this point, you can check your strip by placing it in a tray and walking out to hallway
  • Place print back in fixer for 5 min
 
Wash
  • Place strip in wash tray for at least 5 min - or throw away
 
Ilse Bing, Self-Portrait in Mirrors, 1931.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Troubleshooting
If your negatives:
are black or very opaque
film was exposed to light before developing
are pretty dark, but an image is visible
film was overexposed and / or overdeveloped
are pretty clear, but an image is visible
film was underexposed and / or underdeveloped
are completely clear
film did not move through the camera
have blue or pink splotches
incorrect loading of film on reel
are unevenly developed
overdeveloped or didn't fill the canister with enough developer
 
Underexposed negative
Too dark - use smaller aperture (higher f-number) or decrease exposure time
 
Overexposed negative
Too light - use wider aperture (lower f-number) or increase exposure time
 
Underdeveloped print
Too dark - decrease development time > 90 sec
 
Overdeveloped print
Too light - increase development time < 90 sec
Over and Under Exposure and Developing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evaluating Your Test Strip
   

Always view your test strip in classroom under normal light

 
All exposures too light
retest using wider aperture or longer exposure
  • One stop wider aperture exposes the print twice as long, and is equal to doubling the exposure time
 
All exposures too dark
use smaller aperture or shorter exposure
  • One stop smaller aperture cuts the exposure time in half
   
Photographer's Rule
expose for the shadows and develop for the highlights.
August Sander, High School Student, Cologne, 1926.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making Your Print
   
Supplies:
  • Negative in carrier
  • Printing frame
  • #2 filter
  • 1 sheet photo paper
 
Prepare
  • Before removing paper from envelope, test light & timer
  • Place #2 filter in enlarger
  • Set f-stop according to your tests
  • Open the enlarger's lens to its largest opening to produce the brightest image for focusing
  • Turn the enlarger light on without the timer using the second to last button on the bottom right of the timer
  • Position the easel in the area you plan to print
  • Adjust the enlarger to crop out or include elements you want in your print
  • Focus your image with the knob to the right of the lens
 
Exposure
  • Using your test strip, determine the best exposure aperture and time
  • Start timer
 
Develop print
 
Man Ray, Tears, 1930 - 1932.