Getting to Know Your Camera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Parts

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project 1
Your goal for this project is to figure out what each setting controls, and how that effects your image
 
 
Aleksandr Rodchenko,
Portrait of Mother, 1924.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ISO - (International Organization of Standardization provides standards for a wide variety of subjects)
   
General Rules for ISO
ISO 100 = industry standard for most situations and most conditions
The higher the ISO number, the larger the silver grains used in the film emulsion, and the lower the quality of the image.
 
Use the lowest ISO Possible
If you're trying to capture fast changing conditions, use an ISO of 200 - 400
If you're shooting indoors, and without a flash, use an
ISO of 800 - 3200
Aaron Siskind, Pleasures and Terrors
of Levitation #99, 1965.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common ISOs
                   
25
50
100
125
200
400
800
1600
3200
6400
         
Slow
     
Fast
100
200
400
 
Fine grain
Medium grain
Coarse grain
Less sensitive to light
More sensitive to light
Less "noise" = smooth, rich detail
More "noise" = textured and less detail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

camera noise
crisp and clear detail
   
Robert Frank, Assembly Plant Detroit, 1955.
Robert Mapplethorpe, Calalily, 1986.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Settings Cheat Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shutter Speed
   
The shutter controls two elements
of your image:
The lightness (or darkness)
a.k.a. "exposure"
The appearance of movement
Phillipe Halsman, Dali Automicus, 1948.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard Shutter Speeds
     
Sally Mann, Last Light, 1990.
Minor White, Barn Detail Winter, 1954.
                       
low light
bright light (including snow)
                       
1
2
4
8
15
30
60
125
250
500
1000
2000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60
1/125
1/250
1/500
1/1000
1/2000
slow
   
fast
full second
half as long
half as long
. . . >
< . . .
twice as long
twice as long
fraction of a second
           
| - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - use a tripod - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |
         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Shutter Speeds
City lights at night (without a flash)
8 to 30 sec with a tripod
Evening or dusk, indoors (without a flash)
5 to 30 sec with a tripod
Waterfall
1/2 to 1/30 sec with a tripod
Landscapes
1/20 to 1/100 sec
Still life scenes and portraits
1/125 to 1/250 sec
Stop action indoors (i.e. cheerleading competition)
1/800 to 1/1500 sec
Stop action outdoors (i.e. bird in flight)
1/1000 to 1/2000 sec
Fast cars and athletes
1/2000 to 1/4000 sec

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Difference between a slow an fast shutter speed (in low light with fast moving subject)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Frank, Belle Isle Michigan, 1955.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aperture
   
While shutter speed is measured in seconds, the "f/stop" is a measurement of the camera aperture's diameter
The f-number is calculated by dividing focal length over the aperture diameter
 
small f-number (f1.8 or f3.2) = wider opening
shorter depth of field
 
high f-number (f8.0, f22) = smaller opening
longer depth of field

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  (50mm lens ÷ f-stop)  
50.0 mm
f/1
most light
35.7 mm
f/1.4
half as much
25.0 mm
f/2
v
17.9 mm
f/2.8
.
12.5 mm
f/4
.
8.9 mm
f/5.6
.
6.3 mm
f/8
.
4.5 mm
f/11
^
3.1 mm
f/16
twice as much
2.3 mm
f/22
least light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

f Stop Cheat Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Walker Evans, Main Street Ossinnig, New York, 1932.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Relationship Between Aperture and Shutter Speed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Film Processing
 
Load Film onto Reel
    • In complete darkness, load film onto reel.
    • Place reel into film tank and secure top on tank.
   
Measure Temperature
    • Water and chemical solutions should be between 68° and 72°.
 
 
Pre-Rinse
    • Run water through tank for 1 minute, with constant, gentle agitation.
 
Develop
    • Consult chart for times.
    • Pour developer into tank, start timer.
    • Agitate constantly for 30 seconds.
    • Tap tank on hand or sink bottom to dislodge air bubbles.
    • For remainder of time, agitate for 5 seconds every half minute, and tap out air bubbles every 3 minutes.
    • Pour developper down drain when complete.
 
Stop
    • Pour stop bath into tank and agitate continuously for 30 seconds.
    • Return stop bath to its container (unless solution is dark).
 
Fix
    • Check chart for times.
    • Pour fix into tank.
    • Agitate constantly for 30 seconds.
    • Tap tank on hand or sink to dislodge air bubbles.
    • For remainder of time, agitate for 5 seconds every half minute, and tap out air bubbles every 3 minutes.
    • Return fix to container.
 
Wash
    • Remove reel from tank.
    • Wash reel in running water for 10 mintues.
 
Photo Flo
    • Pour Photo Flo into tank, or dip reel into graduate using gentle, continuous agitation for 15 to 30 seconds.
 
Dry
    • Remove film from reel.
    • Gently squeegee water off film with two fingers.
    • Turn off drying cabinet switch and wait 10 seconds before opening.
    • Clip film on top rack, and clip weight to bottom of film.
    • Set cabinet timer, and dry for 15 to 30 minutes.
 
Protect
    • Cut dry film into five or six exposure lengths, and keep in negative sleeves.