June 29
Art & Revolution

Betsy Ross

Betsy Ross
http://www.sonofthesouth.net/revolutionary-war/patriots/betsy-ross.jpg

Betsy Ross managed her husband’s upholstery business after his death, and became a maker of United States flags. According to legend, a committee headed by George Washington asked Ross to design and make the first American flag in 1776.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exam #1 Results
Number of students earning grade
A
45 - 41 points
12
B
40 - 36 points
8
C
35 - 32 points
3
D
31 - 27 points
1
F
26 - 0 points
0
 
Highest score - 43
Lowest score - 31

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context

Hyacinthe Regaud.  Louis XV.
http://www.cmhg.gc.ca/cmh/book_images/high/v1_c7_s02_ss02_01.jpg

18th century The Age of Enlightenment
1660 - 1774 Rococo
1760 - 1830 Industrial Revolution
1763 - 1781 American Revolution
1789 - 1799 French Revolution
Late 18th to early 19th centuries Neoclassicism
Romanticism
1799 - 1814 Napoleon controls France

 

 

 

 

 

Salon de la Princesse

Germin Boffrand.  Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise.  Begun 1732.
http://www.linternaute.com/paris/magazine/diaporama/06/marais-par-danielle-chadych/images/15.jpg

rococo = 18th century style characterized by fanciful curved asymmetrical forms, elaborate ornamentation, opulence, grace and playfulness

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The Rococo style belonged to a world in which bith determined social status, adultery was accepted as a necessary antidote to loveless, arranged marriages, and servants and wet-nurses relieved upper-class women of many of the burdens of keeping house and nursing infants." - Whitney Chadwick

The Swing

Jean-Honore Fragonard. The Swing. c. 1768.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 7th ed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalba Carriera
1675-1741

 

pastels = crayons of pulverized pigment bound to a chalk base by weak gum water

Rosalba Carriera. Charles Sackville. c. 1730.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Rosalba Carriera. Portrait of Louis XV. 1720.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antoine Watteau

Rosalba Carriera. Antoine Watteau. 1721.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pilgrimage to Cythera

Jean-Antoine Watteau. Le Pelerinage a l'ile de Cithere (Pilgrimage to Cithera). 1717.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

More images by Carriera

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diana Resting After Her Bath

Francois Boucher. Diana Resting After Her Bath. 1742.

"The feminine look of the Rococo suggests that the age was dominated by the taste and the social initiative of women- and, to a large extent, it was. Women held some of the highest positions in Europe, and female influence was felt in any number of smaller courts." -Gardner's Art Through the Ages

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Honore Fragonard. The Meeting.
1771 - 73.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Jacques-Louis David. The Death of Socrates. 1787.
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. 6th Ed. Vol. 2. North Carolina:
Prentice Hall and Harry N. Abrams, 2001. 2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salon de la Princesse

Germain Boffrand. Salon de la Princesse,
Hotel de Soubise. Begun 1732.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York:
Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Salon = a gathering of people held by custom at the home of a prominent person and/or inspiring hostess, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings.  Particularly associated with French literary and philosophical gatherings of the 17th and 18th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salon

Salon style exhibition
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/Jacademy.JPG.

1664 the French Academy begins
to hold annual Salons
 
The Salon, a salon and salon style
 
The salon = annual display of art established as a venue to show the works of Academy members
A salon = a fashionable assemblage of notables held by custom at the home of a prominent person
Salon style = method in which artworks are exhibited in a gallery that utilizes the maximum amount of space possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antoine Francois Calet.  Louis XVI. 1779.
http://www.marie-antoinette.org/gallery/details.php?image_id=100&mode=search

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adelaide Labille Guiard. Portrait of Madame Adelaide.  1787.
http://www.bluffton.edu/~sullivanm/kentucky/louisville/speed/0032.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guiard Self-Portrait with Pupils

Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Self-Portrait with Two Pupils. 1785.  Submitted to Salon of 1785. 6’11” X 4’11”.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Van Meytens.  Marie Antoinette. 1767.
http://www.marie-antoinette.org/gallery/details.php?image_id=26

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump

Joseph Wright. An Experiment on a Bird in the Air Pump. 1768.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Age of Enlightenment = European intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries in which ideas concerning God, reason, nature, and man were synthesized into a worldview that gained wide assent and that instigated revolutionary developments in art, philosophy, and politics.  Central to Enlightenment thought were the use and the celebration of reason, the power by which man understands the universe and improves his own conditions.  The goals of rational man were considered to be knowledge, freedom, and happiness.
Most significant shift in the way people live since the Neolithic agricultural revolution
Everything turns against the aristocratic excesses of the Rococo

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun
1755 - 1842

 

Self-Portrait

Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Self-portrait. 1790.
Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Twelfth ed. Vol. 1. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 2005. 2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun.   Marie Antoinette.  1778.
http://www.batguano.com/MarieAG.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marie Antoinette en Chemise

Marie Antoinette en Chemise.  1773.
http://blogs.lexpress.fr/cafe-mode/Marie_Antoinette_vigee_le_brun.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cartoon satirizing Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
http://www.marie-antoinette.org/gallery/details.php?image_id=33

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adolph-Ulrich Wertmuller.  Marie Antoinette with Her Children.  1785 - 86.
http://www.culture.gouv.fr/public/mistral/joconde_fr?ACTION=CHERCHER&FIELD_1=AUTR&VALUE_1=WERTMULLER Adolf Ulrik&DOM=All&REL_SPECIFIC=1&IMAGE_ONLY=CHECKED

 

Denounced for depicting “an ugly queen frivolously dressed and gamboling in front of the
Temple of Love at Versailles with her two children.” – Chadwick

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children. 1787.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motherhood

Marguerite  Gerard.  Motherhood.  No date.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Illustrated History.  Fourth edition.  New York:  Abbeville Press, 2003.

The Good Mother
 
Emile: Or, On Education
by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762
Rousseau promoted the idea of the "good mother"- a woman who was completely committed to the care of her children and sacrificed all freedoms for their best interest
Believed that middle class women should devote themselves to the care of the family, breastfeeding, and keeping a comfortable home
"Rousseau viewed the saloniere as a threat to the natural dominance of men, the salon was a prison in which men were subjected to the rule of women." - Chadwick
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

average family in 17th century had 6.5 children

Woman Knitting

Francoise Duparc.  Woman Knitting.  No date.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Illustrated History.  Fourth edition.  New York: 
Abbeville Press, 2003.

average family in 18th century had 2 children
 
Rousseau must have seen the freedoms promised to women by birth control as threatening patriarchal control and thus advocated containing women to the domestic sphere because it was her "natural" place
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun.  Portrait of the Artist with Her Daughter.  1789.
http://www.batguano.com/VLB3.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Academicians of the Royal Academy

Johann Zoffany. Academicians of the Royal Academy. 1771 - 72.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

Despite restrictions on their admittance to the Academy and barriers to their study of the nude, several women exhibited regularly at 18th century salons and were among the most respected artists of their time
 
1768
Angelica Kauffmann and Mary Moser become founding members of Royal Academy in London (no other women admitted until 1922)
1783
Adelaide Labille-Guiard and Elisabeth Vigee Le Brun admitted to the Royal Academy (with the intervention of Marie Antoinette)
1787
Guiard named First Painter to Mesdames

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marie Antoinette at Execution

Jacques-Louis David.  Marie Antoinette Awaiting Execution.  1793.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marie_Antoinette_by_David.jpg