Art 5
Art History of the Western World: 1400 Through Contemporary

Lecture and Reading Notes 5
Chapter 27


Key Images:  
Jacques-Louis David. Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard. 1800 - 01.
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres. Large Odalisque. 1814.
Theodore Gericault. Raft of the Medusa. 1818 - 19.
Eugene Delacroix. Women of Algiers. 1834.
Francisco Goya. Third of May 1808. 1814 - 15.
Caspar David Friedrich. Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist. c. 1818.
Joseph Mallard William Turner. The Slave Ship. 1840. (NOT illustrated in Stokstad)
Thomas Cole. The Oxbow. 1836.
Louis-Jacques-Mande Daguerre. The Artist's Studio. 1837.
Gustave Courbet. The Stone Breakers. 1849.
Edouard Manet. The Luncheon on the Grass. 1863.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Moulin de la Galette. 1876.
Mary Cassatt. Woman in a Loge. 1879.
Claude Monet. Impression: Sunrise. 1872. (NOT illustrated in Stokstad)
Paul Cezanne. Still-Life with a Basket of Apples. 1890 - 1894.
Georges Seurat. A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte. 1884 - 86.
Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. 1889.
Paul Gauguin. Day of the God. 1894.


What changes did the Industrial Revolution bring?
At what cost did imperialism rise in the 19th century?
What group replaced the Church as the primary source of art patronage in the 19th century? How did this affect the art world? How did this affect the subject of art?
What does the term "positivism" refer to? What influence did positivist thinking have on the visual arts?
During the 1880s and 1890s, what spawned the rejection of realistic styles?
Where was the capital of the 19th century art world?
What influence did the Paris Salon have on art production and the careers of artists?
What influenced the rise of the avant-garde in art?
Compare and contrast David's portrait of Napoleon with Gros' depiction. What stylistic tendencies does each work exhibit? How is each an idealized account of an actual event?
What is an odalisque?
Describe the Neoclassic and the Romantic elements exhibited in Ingres' Odalisque.
What does Gericault's Raft of the Medusa depict?
What event does Goya's Third of May 1808 depict? How is it an idealized account of an actual event?
What two forms did Romantic landscape painting take?
How is Turner's Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps an allegory of the Napoleonic wars?
Who does your book consider to be "America's foremost Romantic landscape painter?"
What personal beliefs do Cole's landscapes express?
What did Neoclassic architecture evoke? Why did it become the favored style for government buildings?
When did photography, as we know it, develop? What role did the camera obscura play in the development of the camera?
Who does your book credit with developing the first photographic image?
Why was the wet-collodion process important to the development of modern photography?
How did early photographers legitimize their new media?
What was revolutionary about the construction of the Crystal Palace?
What major shift occurred in French academic art during the second half of the 19th century?
What does the term "realism," as a style, refer to?
What factors contributed to the appeal of images of peaceful country life in the 1830s and 1840s?
Why does Courbet make the men depicted in The Stone Breakers anonymous? What radical statement did the size of The Stone Breakers convey?
What was the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood? Why was it formed? What were its main goals?
What movement did Morris inspire? Who did he aim to benefit? How did he do this?
What events spawned the first Impressionist exhibit? When did it occur?
Why was Manet's Luncheon on the Grass considered so scandalous?
What was Baudelaire's call to the artists of his age? How did Manet meet this call?
What earlier work is Luncheon on the Grass based on?
Compare and contrast Titian's Venus of Urbino with Manet's Olympia.
Explain the difference between a studio painter and an "en plein air" painter.
What modern invention had allowed the development of plein air painting?
How is Monet's style characterized?
Explain the history and ideas behind the term "sketch aesthetic."
What did Renoir want his work to be?
How was Degas' work influenced by photography?
What subjects did Cassatt focus her attention on?
Did Manet ever exhibit with the Impressionists? Did he consider himself the leader of the group? Why or why not?
What visual puzzle does Manet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergere present to the viewer?
What happened to Impressionism after 1880?
How is the Post-Impressionist style defined? How is the style characterized?
What was Cezanne's artistic goal? How did he aim to achieve this goal?
Describe Cezanne's "new way of seeing."
When did Cezanne gain the respect that he so desired? What group of artists led this appreciation of his work?
What is the term used to describe Seurat's painting technique?
In what ways did Seurat reject Impressionism?
What painting technique did van Gogh characteristically employ?
What did van Gogh believe Impressionism lacked? How did he try to include this in his works?
What did Gauguin call his anti-Impressionist style?
What did the Symbolists seek? What did they reject?
What is a "naïve," or "primitive" artist?
How did Rodin's style "open the way for the more radical innovations of later sculptors?"
What did Art Nouveau artists seek? What did they reject?
Why weren't photographs of actual fighting taken during the Civil War?
How does the history of later 19th century American architecture differ from the history of European painting during the same time?
What was new about the buildings constructed by the Chicago School?
What was Sullivan's architectural philosophy?