Art 5
Art History of the Western World: 1400 Through Contemporary

Lecture and Reading Notes 3
Chapter 19


Key Images  
  Chapter 18 Images:
  Pontormo. Entombment. 1525-28
  Parmigianino. Madonna with the Long Neck. 1534-40
  Veronese. Feast in the House of Levi. 1573
  Tintoretto. The Last Supper. 1592-94
  El Greco. Burial of Count Orgaz. 1586
  Chapter 19 Images
  Gianlorenzo Bernini. Saint Teresa of Avila in Ecstacy. 1645-52.
  Gianlorenzo Bernini. David. 1623.
  Annibale Carracci. Ceiling of gallery, Palazzo Farnese. 1597-1601.
  Giovanni Battista Gaulli. The Triumph of the Name of Jesus and the Fall of the Damned. 1672-85.
  Caravaggio. The Calling of Saint Matthew. 1599-1600.
  Artemisia Gentileschi. Judith and Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes. 1625
  Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun. Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles. Begun 1678.
  Nicolas Poussin. Landscape with Saint John on Patmos. 1640.
  Francisco de Zurbaran. Saint Serapion. 1628.
  Diego Velazquez. Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor). 1656.
  Peter Paul Rubens. The Raising of the Cross. 1610-11.
  Frans Hals. Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of Saint Adrian. c. 1627.
  Rembrandt van Rijn. The Night Watch. 1642.
  Jacob van Ruisdael. The Jewish Cemetery. 1655-60.
  Jan Vermeer. Woman Holding a Balance. c. 1664.


Chapter 18 Questions:

What repercussions did the Reformation have in Italy? What movement did it spawn? How did it influence the art of the Late Renaissance?

What did the Council of Trent set out to do?

What was the Inquisition?

What new focuses did the Catholic Church take on during the Counter-Reformation? How did church architecture change with the Counter-Reformation?

What does the term 'Mannerism' refer to? What are the characteristics of Mannerist art?

What characteristics, typical of Mannerism, are present in Pontormo's Entombment?

In what ways is the Madonna with the Long Neck purposefully unsettling?

Why does your textbook describe Bronzino's Allegory with Venus and Cupid as "one of the strangest paintings in the 16th century?" Explain this work.

What was unusual about Sofonisba Anguissola's upbringing?

Why was Veronese called before the Inquisition to explain his painting, Feast in the House of Levi? How did he defend himself? What compromise did he make?

Compare and contrast Leonardo's version of the Last Supper with Tintoretto's.

How was Palladio's Villa Rotunda inventive and daring?

What Mannerist characteristics are present in El Greco's Burial of Count Orgaz?

What Mannerist characteristics are present in Bruegel's Carrying of the Cross?

Chapter 19 Questions

What was the cultural context of the Baroque period?

How did the Catholic Church respond to the Protestant Reformation in the 1540s? What role did art play in that program?

What does a genre painting depict?

How did the view of the world and the universe change during the 17th century?

How is the Baroque style characterized?

How did the naturalism of the Baroque period differ from that of the Renaissance?

What were artists admired for during the Baroque period? When does the respect for the "original" derive?

How did 17th century artists treat the viewers of their works? What was expected of the viewer?

What were some of the goals of Counter Reformation Church building?

What purpose does the Baldacchino serve?

How did Bernini describe his design for the piazza in front of St. Peter's?

Why is Borromini's design for the Church of San Carlo described as "audacious?"

In what way is Bernini's Saint Teresa of Avila in Ecstacy a multi-media work? To what effect does the artist employ drapery?

In what way does Bernini's David "intrude on the viewer's space?" What new direction in art does this work represent?

In what ways does Gaulli's ceiling fresco go beyond anything that had preceded it?

Why was Caravaggio considered an "evil genius?" What term describes his dramatic lighting effects? What term describes his coloring technique?

What influence did Louis XIV have on the art of the early 17th century in France?

Explain the positions of the poussinistes and the rubenistes.

In what way were Claude and Poussin "classicists?"

Your book states that Claude and Poussin both created landscapes with figures. How do their approaches differ?

How were the arts affected by the discord of 17th century Germanic lands?

What was the primary influence on 17th century Spanish painting?

How did the Catholic Church employ art during the 17th century? How did this effect the subjects portrayed in works commissioned by the Church?

What artist does your book describe as "the greatest painter to emerge from the Caravaggesque school of Seville?"

Describe Velazquez's depiction of light and form.

What is the meaning of The Maids of Honor?

What effect did the Spanish colonization of the Americas have on the native population?

Who did pope declare the patron saint of the Americas? What is her story?

What artist's work is considered synonymous with the Flemish Baroque?

How is Ruben's triptych, The Raising of the Cross, unusual? What influences are apparent?

What are Wölffilin's five pairs of stylistic characteristics?

How can the Dutch art of the Baroque period be characterized? What subjects were popular?

Describe Frans Hals' painting technique and style. How are his compositions inventive and groundbreaking?

Why is Rembrandt considered "one of the greatest artists of all time?"

How does Rembrandt carry the group portrait to new levels in The Night Watch?

How did Dutch landscape painting change after 1650?

What subjects were most wanted by Dutch art patrons? In what way was the artist "more entrepreneur than art maker?"

What device may Jan Vermeer have used to analyze the landscape and reproduce natural optical effects?

How is the work of Vermeer characterized?

What does the term "vanitas" mean? How does this relate to Dutch still-life paintings of the Baroque period?