Where Do We Go From Here?
   
"I have been carrying on a dialogue between the landscape and the female body. I believe this has been the direct result of my having been torn from my homeland (Cuba) during my adolescence. I am overwhelmed by the feeling of having been cast from the womb (nature).” - Ana Mendieta
Tree of Life
 
Presentation Preparation Due
 
Exam #2 will be posted to Blackboard Saturday, May 13 and must be submitted by Tuesday, May 16 at 11:59 PM.
 
Student Evaluations!
 
 
Ana Mendieta, Tree of Life, 1977.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Whitney Protestors
1968
Young feminists protest Miss America pageant by throwing their bras into trash can (NOT burning them!)
Valerie Solanas writes the SCUM Manifesto and shoots Andy Warhol and Mario Amaya for losing her manuscript, Up Your Ass
1969
Whitney Annual included 8 women out of 143 artists
1970
Women artists protest the Whitney Annual
Survey reveals that 50% of practicing American artists are women while only 18% of New York's commercial galleries show the work of women artists
Judy Chicago founds the first feminist studio art course at Fresno State University
Los Angeles Council of Women Artists protest exclusion of women artists in LACMA show Art and Technology
First publication of Our Bodies, Ourselves
1971
Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro found Feminist Art Program at Cal Arts
Ann Arien & Lucy Lippard protesting in front of the Whitney Museum of Art in 1970, demanding a 50% representation of womenand nonwhite artists in the Whitney Annual.
Linda Nochlin's "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists" published

Womanhouse catalog

1972
Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment; but by 1982 it had only been ratified by 35 states (three short of becming law); has been reintroduced into every session of Congress since
LACMA exhibit - Four Los Angeles Artists
Womanhouse - first feminist exhibition
1973
Supreme Court legalizes abortion in Roe v. Wade
1976
Linda Nochlin and Ann Sutherland Harris curate first historical exhibition of women artists at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art - Women Artists: 1550 - 1950
1979
U.S. National Weather Service begins naming storms for women and men
Womanhouse catalog
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sheet Closet

The Feminist Art Program
was an experiment in teaching
  • Participants engaged in consciousness raising sessions
  • Collaboration was encouraged with the intention of forming a community
  • Only women allowed in the classroom and studio
 
 
Womanhouse, 1972
theme = women's work
aimed to "search out and reveal the female experience...the dreams and fantasies of women as they sewed, cooked, washed and ironed awyay their lives." - Judy Chicago
 
Sandra Orgel, Sheet Closet, 1972.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Womb Room

Susan Frazier, Nurturant Kitchen, 1972.
Faith Wilding, Womb Room, 1972.
Chicago, Menstruation Bathroom, 1972.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chief concerns of Second Wave Feminism:

  • Gain full social and economic equality
  • Reveal and question society's definition of women's roles
  • To use collaboration to undermine the authority of patriarchy
  • To examine the natural processes of the body long disregarded by western culture
  • To express (finally) the woman's identity
 
 
Sylvia Sleigh, The Turkish Bath, 1973.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974 - 1979.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

setting for Judith

setting for Mary Wollstonecraft

setting for Virginia Woolf

 
More place settings
 
"Because we are denied knowledge of our history, we are deprived of standing upon each other's shoulders and build upon each other's hard earned accomplishments. Instead we are condemned to repeat what others have done before and thus we continually reinvent the wheel. The goal of The Dinner Party is to break this cycle." - Judy Chicago

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Performance Art = art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work
Cut Piece
 

*Cut Piece

First version for single performer:

Performer sits on stage with a pair of scissors in front of him. It is announced that members of the audience may come on stage one at a time to cut a small piece of the performer's clothing to take with them.

Performer remains motionless throughout the piece.
Piece ends at the performer's option.

Second version for audience: It is announced that members of the audience may cut each others clothing.

The audience may cut as long as they wish*

Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1965. Carnegie Hall.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1965. Carnegie Hall.
Yoko Ono, Cut Piece at Carnegie Hall, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

“I felt really violated: they cut my clothes, stuck rose thorns in my stomach, one person aimed the gun at my head, and another took it away. It created an aggressive atmosphere. After exactly 6 hours, as planned, I stood up and started walking toward the public. Everyone ran away, escaping an actual confrontation.” - Marina Abramovic
Rhythm
 
Abramovic recalls the performance
 
 
Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 0, 1974.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interior Scroll

Interior Scroll

Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exerpt from Interior Scroll text :

I met a happy man
a structuralist filmmaker
--but don't call me that
it's something else I do-
he said we are fond of you
you are charming
but don't ask us
to lookat your films
we cannot
there are certain films
we cannot
look at
the personal clutter
the persistence of feelings
the hand-touch sensibility
the diaristic indulgent
the painterly mess
the dense gestalt
he said you can do as I do
take one clear process
follow its strictest
implications intellectually
establish a system of
permutations establish
their visual set...

he protested
you are unable to appreciate
the system grid
the numerical rational
procedures-
the Pytagoream cues-

I saw my failings were worthy
of dismissal I'd be buried
alive my works lost...

scroll detail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Feminists questioned and attacked Modern formalism
  • Openly encouraged artists to explore autobiography,
    narrative and personal identity
  • Advocated collaboration
  • Optimistically explored new media
 
"The personal is political" - Carol Hanisch
Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 1972.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ana Mendieta, Silueta Works in Mexico, 1973 – 1977.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steel Magnesium Plain

Carl Andre, Steel Magnesium Plain, 1969. 6 X 6 ft.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A recording of Andre's 911 call showed him saying: "My wife is an artist, and I'm an artist, and we had a
quarrel about the fact that I was more, eh, exposed to the public than she was. And she went to the bedroom,
and I went after her, and she went out the window." - Naked by the Window by Robert Katz
   
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.

 

NY Times article on 2011 Carl Andre Monograph

 

Mira Schor, "Still 'Naked by the Window'"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hand/ Heart

Homage to Carl Andre

Carolee Schneemann, Hand/ Heart for Mendieta, 1986.  Blood, ashes & syrup on snow.
Rachel Lachowicz, Homage to Carl Andre (After Carl Andre's Magnesium and Zinc, 1969), 1991.  Lipstick and wax.  72 X 72 X 3/8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Bourgeois's work is a meditation on the past, and also a release of anger - chiefly, it seems from her own account, anger about a blocked and frustrated childhood, the sadistic teasing to which she was subjected by an anglophile father, and (most of all) the presence in her childhood home of her father's mistress." - Edward Lucie - Smith

Destruction of the Father

 
Louise Bourgeois, The Destruction of the Father, 1974.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louise Bourgeois, Filette (Little Girl) (Sweeter Version), 1968.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

We Don't Need Another Hero
Barbara Kruger, We don't need another hero, 1987.
 
Appropriation = the use of found or borrowed elements in the creation of a new artwork

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barbara Kruger, Man's Best Friend, 1987.

Barbara Kruger, Your body is a battleground, 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Are we there yet?

Statistics

 
Art museums still present only an average of 15% women in curated exhibits, and a mere 4% of museum acquisitions are works by women artist - Guerrilla Girls
 
More than half of the artists in the 2010 Whitney Biennial were women
  • However, only 38 of 118 artists in the 2014 Whitney Biennial were women - just 32%
  • Only 9 of the 118 artists were black - 7% counting Donnelle Woolford!
 
  • 20% of US Gallery shows are solo exhibitions of women artists
  • About 28% of published artist's monographs are about women artists
 
Marilyn Minter, Stepping Up, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 2010, for the first time on record, more women employees were on payrolls than men

 
In the US in 2012, for every $1 males earn, on average, a white woman earns 77 cents
  • At the present rate of progress, the wage gap will not close until 2057
 
 
Marilyn Minter, Stuffed, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1985 - 1990.

Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1985.

 

Although the Paycheck Fairness Act was passed by the House of Representatives on January 9, 2009, it was defeated in the Senate on a 58 - 41 procedural vote in November 2010.

 
It was reintroduced in the Senate as a bill that would punish employers for retaliating against worker who share wage information. On April 9, 2014, it failed an important vote to end debate.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maman 2
A smaller version of Maman was bought in 2006 for $4 million, another in 2008 for $4.5 million, and a third for $10.7 million. In 2015 a version was sold for $28,165,000.
Nonetheless, work by women artists remains quite inexpensive when compared to that of male artists.
In a 2015 Art Sy study on the value of works bought at auction, only two women artist's names appear on the list of 100 most expensive works of art!!
Louise Bourgeois, Maman at National Gallery of Canada, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Highest prices paid for works by deceased women artists
 
Fleurs
Berthe Morisot, Apres le Deujeuner, 1881.
Natalia Goncharova, The Flowers, c. 1912.
   
$10.9 million in 2013
$10.8 million in 2008

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The three most valuable works of art (paintings) to date:
     
sold by George Embiricos to the State of Qatar in 2011 by private sale
for $259 to $300 million
sold by Staechelin family to the State of Qatar (possibly) in 2015 by private sale for suspected $300 million
sold by David Geffin to Kenneth Griffin in 2015 by private sale for suspected $300 million
     
Paul Cezanne, The Card Players, 1892 - 1893.
Paul Gaugin, When Will You Marry? 1892.
Willem De Kooning, Interchange, 1955.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The world's first elected female president was Vigdis Finnbogadottir of Iceland, whose term lasted from 1980 to 1996


 
Rwanda currently has the largest percentage of women participating in its national legislature at 64%
  • In 2003, Rwanda enacted a new constitution that mandated that at least 30 percent of all legislative seats be reserved for women. 
 
In 2006, Nancy Pelosi became the first female Speaker of the House (second in presidential line of succession)
The United States Congress is currently comprised of 19.4% women (the world average is 23.3%).
 
Marilyn Minter, Bottled Blonde, 2006.  Enamel on aluminum.