Where Do We Go From Here?
"I am really proud to be a part in whatever way of women becoming active in the political scene. I think it was the first time that people came to terms with the reality of what it meant to have a Senate made up of 98 men and two women." - Anita Hill
If you haven't already done so, please submit your student evaluation!
Anita Hill testifying during Senate confirmation hearing of Justice Clarence Thomas in 1991











Whitney Protestors
Young feminists protest Miss America pageant by throwing their bras into trash can (NOT burning them!)
Valerie Solanas writes the SCUM Manifesto and shoots Andy Warhol and Mario Amaya for losing her manuscript, Up Your Ass
Whitney Annual included 8 women out of 143 artists
Women artists protest the Whitney Annual
Survey reveals that 50% of practicing American artists are women while only 18% of New York's commercial galleries show the work of women artists
Judy Chicago founds the first feminist studio art course at Fresno State University
Los Angeles Council of Women Artists protest exclusion of women artists in LACMA show Art and Technology
First publication of Our Bodies, Ourselves
Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro found Feminist Art Program at Cal Arts
Ann Arien & Lucy Lippard protesting in front of the Whitney Museum of Art in 1970, demanding a 50% representation of womenand nonwhite artists in the Whitney Annual.
Linda Nochlin's "Why Have There Been No Great Women Artists" published

Womanhouse catalog

Congress passes Equal Rights Amendment; but by 1982 it had only been ratified by 35 states (three short of becming law); has been reintroduced into every session of Congress since
Title IX passed - No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.
LACMA exhibit - Four Los Angeles Artists
Womanhouse - first feminist exhibition
Supreme Court legalizes abortion in Roe v. Wade
Linda Nochlin and Ann Sutherland Harris curate first historical exhibition of women artists at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art - Women Artists: 1550 - 1950
U.S. National Weather Service begins naming storms for women and men
Womanhouse catalog











Sheet Closet

The Feminist Art Program
was an experiment in teaching
  • Participants engaged in consciousness raising sessions
  • Collaboration was encouraged with the intention of forming a community
  • Only women allowed in the classroom and studio
Womanhouse, 1972
theme = women's work
aimed to "search out and reveal the female experience...the dreams and fantasies of women as they sewed, cooked, washed and ironed awyay their lives." - Judy Chicago
Sandra Orgel, Sheet Closet, 1972.











Womb Room

Susan Frazier, Nurturant Kitchen, 1972.
Faith Wilding, Womb Room, 1972.
Chicago, Menstruation Bathroom, 1972.






















Chief concerns of Second Wave Feminism:

  • Gain full social and economic equality
  • Reveal and question society's definition of women's roles
  • To use collaboration to undermine the authority of patriarchy
  • To examine the natural processes of the body long disregarded by western culture
  • To express (finally) the woman's identity
Sylvia Sleigh, The Turkish Bath, 1973.











Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974 - 1979.











setting for Judith

setting for Mary Wollstonecraft

setting for Virginia Woolf

More place settings
"Because we are denied knowledge of our history, we are deprived of standing upon each other's shoulders and build upon each other's hard earned accomplishments. Instead we are condemned to repeat what others have done before and thus we continually reinvent the wheel. The goal of The Dinner Party is to break this cycle." - Judy Chicago






















Performance Art = art where the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time, constitute the work
Cut Piece

*Cut Piece

First version for single performer:

Performer sits on stage with a pair of scissors in front of him. It is announced that members of the audience may come on stage one at a time to cut a small piece of the performer's clothing to take with them.

Performer remains motionless throughout the piece.
Piece ends at the performer's option.

Second version for audience: It is announced that members of the audience may cut each others clothing.

The audience may cut as long as they wish*

Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1965. Carnegie Hall.











Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1965. Carnegie Hall.
Yoko Ono, Cut Piece at Carnegie Hall, 2003.











“I felt really violated: they cut my clothes, stuck rose thorns in my stomach, one person aimed the gun at my head, and another took it away. It created an aggressive atmosphere. After exactly 6 hours, as planned, I stood up and started walking toward the public. Everyone ran away, escaping an actual confrontation.” - Marina Abramovic
Abramovic recalls the performance
Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 0, 1974.











Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.











Interior Scroll

Interior Scroll

Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.











Exerpt from Interior Scroll text :

I met a happy man
a structuralist filmmaker
--but don't call me that
it's something else I do-
he said we are fond of you
you are charming
but don't ask us
to lookat your films
we cannot
there are certain films
we cannot
look at
the personal clutter
the persistence of feelings
the hand-touch sensibility
the diaristic indulgent
the painterly mess
the dense gestalt
he said you can do as I do
take one clear process
follow its strictest
implications intellectually
establish a system of
permutations establish
their visual set...

he protested
you are unable to appreciate
the system grid
the numerical rational
the Pytagoream cues-

I saw my failings were worthy
of dismissal I'd be buried
alive my works lost...

scroll detail











Feminists questioned and attacked Modern formalism
  • Openly encouraged artists to explore autobiography,
    narrative and personal identity
  • Advocated collaboration
  • Optimistically explored new media
"The personal is political" - Carol Hanisch
Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima, 1972.











Ana Mendieta, Silueta Works in Mexico, 1973 – 1977.











Steel Magnesium Plain

Carl Andre, Steel Magnesium Plain, 1969. 6 X 6 ft.











A recording of Andre's 911 call showed him saying: "My wife is an artist, and I'm an artist, and we had a
quarrel about the fact that I was more, eh, exposed to the public than she was. And she went to the bedroom,
and I went after her, and she went out the window." - Naked by the Window by Robert Katz
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.


NY Times article on 2011 Carl Andre Monograph


Mira Schor, "Still 'Naked by the Window'"










Hand/ Heart

Homage to Carl Andre

Carolee Schneemann, Hand/ Heart for Mendieta, 1986.  Blood, ashes & syrup on snow.
Rachel Lachowicz, Homage to Carl Andre (After Carl Andre's Magnesium and Zinc, 1969), 1991.  Lipstick and wax.  72 X 72 X 3/8".











"Bourgeois's work is a meditation on the past, and also a release of anger - chiefly, it seems from her own account, anger about a blocked and frustrated childhood, the sadistic teasing to which she was subjected by an anglophile father, and (most of all) the presence in her childhood home of her father's mistress." - Edward Lucie - Smith

Destruction of the Father

Louise Bourgeois, The Destruction of the Father, 1974.











Louise Bourgeois, Filette (Little Girl) (Sweeter Version), 1968.











We Don't Need Another Hero
Barbara Kruger, We don't need another hero, 1987.
Appropriation = the use of found or borrowed elements in the creation of a new artwork











Barbara Kruger, Man's Best Friend, 1987.

Barbara Kruger, Your body is a battleground, 1989.











Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  1989.











Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  2005.











Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1989.










Are we there yet?


Art museums still present only an average of 15% women in curated exhibits, and a mere 4% of museum acquisitions are works by women artist - Guerrilla Girls
In 2010, for the first time, more than half of the artists in the
Whitney Biennial were women
  • However, 29% of the artists in the 2014 Whitney Biennial were white women. The curator hailed the exhibition as “one of the broadest and most diverse takes on art in the United States that the Whitney has offered in many years.”
  • Only 9 of the 118 artists were black - 7% counting Donnelle Woolford!
  • 30% of artists represented by commercial galleries are women (51% of visual artists today identify as women)
  • Only 27 women (out of 318 artists) are represented in the 9th edition of H.W. Janson’s survey, Basic History of Western Art—up from zero in the 1980s.
Get the Facts!
Marilyn Minter, Stepping Up, 2005.











In 2010, for the first time on record, more women
were employed then men

In 2016, for every $1 white males earn, on average,
a white woman earns 80 cents
  • At the present rate of progress, the wage gap will not close until 2119. (Just a decade ago, it was projected to be obtainable by 2057.)
Marilyn Minter, Stuffed, 2002.











Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1985 - 1990.

Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1985.


Although the Paycheck Fairness Act was passed by the House of Representatives on January 9, 2009, it was defeated in the Senate on a 58 - 41 procedural vote in November 2010.

It was reintroduced in the Senate as a bill that would punish employers for retaliating against worker who share wage information. On April 9, 2014, it failed an important vote to end debate.























Maman 2
A smaller version of Maman was bought in 2006 for $4 million, another in 2008 for $4.5 million, and a third for $10.7 million. In 2015, a version was sold for $28,165,000.
Nonetheless, work by women artists remains quite inexpensive when compared to that of male artists.
In a 2017 Artsy study on the value of works bought at auction, only two women artist's names appear on the list of 100 most expensive works of art!!
Louise Bourgeois, Maman at National Gallery of Canada, 2005.











Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #13, 1978.
Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #96, 1981.
In 2008, a print of #13 sold at auction for $902,500
In 2011, a print of #96 sold at auction for $3,890,500
making it the most expensive photograph











Then, Andreas Gursky's Rhein II sold at auction in November 2011 for $4,338,500


Andreas Gursky, Rhein II, 1999.










Highest prices paid for works by deceased women artists
$10.8 million in 2008
$10.9 million in 2013
Natalia Goncharova, The Flowers, c. 1912.
Berthe Morisot, Apres le Deujeuner, 1881.











$11,925,000 in 2014

Joan Mitchell, Untitled, 1960.











The most expensive work by a woman sold at auction is:

Georgia O’Keeffe’s Jimson Weed/White Flower No. 1, which sold in 2014 for $44.4 million











The three most valuable works of art to date:
sold by Dimitry Rybolovlev in 2017 to Abu Dhabi Department of Culture & Tourism for $450 million
sold by David Geffin to Kenneth Griffin in 2015 by private sale for suspected $300 million
sold privately by George Embiricos to the State of Qatar in 2011 for $259 to $300 million
Leonardo da Vinci,
Salvator Mundi
, c. 1500.
Willem De Kooning, Interchange, 1955.
Paul Cezanne,
The Card Players, 1892 - 1893.














The world's first elected female president was Vigdis Finnbogadottir of Iceland, whose term lasted from 1980 to 1996

Rwanda currently has the largest percentage of women participating in its national legislature at 61%
  • In 2003, Rwanda enacted a new constitution that mandated that at least 30 percent of all legislative seats be reserved for women. 
In 2006, Nancy Pelosi became the first female Speaker of the House (second in presidential line of succession).
The United States Congress is currently comprised of 19.5% women (the world average is 23.3%).
Marilyn Minter, Bottled Blonde, 2006.
Enamel on aluminum.












Are the dishes done?


Liza Lou, Kitchen, 1991 - 1994.











Liza Lou, Kitchen (detail), 1991 - 1994.