Hitler's Bath and Other Triumphs
Lee Miller was a successful model and photographer.  In 1944 she became a correspondent with the US Army, taking photos that would be published in major magazines like Vogue and Life. She followed US troops overseas on 'D' Day and was one of few women photo-journalist to cover the war in Europe.  She was present when the allies stormed Hitler's apartment and it is in his bathtub that she decided to bathe!
Miller Bathing in Hitler's Tub
Lee Miller. Miller Bathing in Hitler's Bath. 1945.











Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.











HIlma of Klint, The Tens Mainstay, 1907.











Basic objective of Cubism was to depict
three-dimensional objects from all sides at once

Electric Prisms

Sonia Delaunay. Electric Prisms. 1914.

To represent an object as the mind sees it
rather than as the eye sees it
Little to no perspective or illusionism
No chiaroscuro
No story to validate the subject
Modern, present-day subject











Le Bal Bullier

Sonia Delaunay. Bal Bullier. 1913. Oil on mattress ticking.  38 1/8" X 12'8".












Sonia Delaunay. Couverture. 1911. Appliqued fabric.
Grosenick, Uta ed. Women Artists in the 20th and 21st Century. Taschen, Koln. 2005.











Sonia and Citroen

Sonia Delaunay. Clothes and customized Citroen B-12. 1925.


In 1964 Delaunay became the first living female artist to have a retrospective exhibiton at the Louvre









Modernism and Women
Meret Oppenheim
1930 US census recorded 40% of art professionals were women
Despite the increased participation of women in the artistic realm,
modern imagery is dominated by the nude female body
The woman continues to be a passive subject
on which male "genius" artists exert control
Man Ray. Erotique Voile'e (Meret Oppenheim). 1923.











Hannah Höch
1889 - 1978


Beautiful Girl

"It was not very easy for a woman to impose herself as a modern artist in Germany...Most of our male colleagues continued for a long time to look upon us as charming and gifted amateurs, denying us implicitly any real professional status." - Hannah Höch
Hans Richter described Höch's contribution to the Dada movement as the "sandwiches, beer and coffee she managed somehow to conjure up despite the shortage of money." Raoul Hausmann even suggested that the best thing Höch could do for Dada was to support him financially. This was during the time that Hausmann was living with both Höch and his wife, whom he refused to divorce in order to commit himself to his relationship with Höch (Wikipedia).
Hannah Hoch.  The Beautiful Girl.  1920.











"They all wanted this 'new woman' and her groundbreaking will to freedom. But they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes." - Hannah Höch

Photomontage - a collage of separate photographs that is re-photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seemless photographic print
"The excess of Hell falls into the coffers of Pastor Klatt for innocent children of criminals."


Hanah Hoch. Dada Dance. 1922. Photomontage.











Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919 - 1920.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.











1916 - 1923


(Some of the) Berlin Dadaists in 1921

Dada = a nonsensical term used to define an international artistic and literary movement.  Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it attacked conventional standards of aesthetics and behavior and stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation.
"While the thunder of guns rolled in the distance, we sang, painted, glued and composed for all our worth. We are seeking an art that would heal mankind from the madness of the age."- Jean Arp










Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919-20.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

Photomontage = a photographic collage that is photographed so that the final image is converted back into a photographic print
Hannah Hoch organizes the photomontage into four quadrants:
Upper right = Anti Dada world
Lower right = The Great Dada World
Upper left = "Dada" springs from Einstein's head
Lower left = figure demands that the masses join Dada











Kathe Kollwitz.  Outbreak.  1903.











Hannah and Til

Hannah and Til Brugman 1947
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.












Marlene Dietrich

Hannah Hoch.  Marlene.  1930.
Marlene Dietrich. Morrocco publicity still. 1933.











Marlene Dietrich in Morroco
Madonna's appropriation of the kiss scene










Historical Context
1906 - 1920
Women gain the right to vote in Finland, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States
1914 - 1918
World War I
Over 37 milion deaths
Treaty of Versailles forces Germany, Austria and Hungary to accept responsibility for causing WWI and pay heavy reparations to certain Allied Nations
1919 - 1933
German Weimar Republic
1917 - 1920
Russian Revolution
1919 - 1921
Irish War of Independence
Formation of the Soviet Union
Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
Immigration Act restricts Eastern and Southern European nationalities, bans East Asians, Indians and Africans, and regulates Latin Americans from immigrating to U.S. Coincides with growth of KKK.
1926 - 1953
Stalin gains control of the Soviet Union
First "talkie" movie, The Jazz Singer
Great Depression begins











Self Portrait

Una Troubridge

Romaine Brooks. Self-Portrait. 1923.
Romaine Brooks.  Una, Lady Troubridge.  1924.











White Azaleas

Romaine Brooks. White Azaleas or Black Net. 1910.











The Amazon

Natalie Romaine

Romaine Brooks. The Amazon (Natalie Barney). 1920.
Natalie and Romaine











La Revolution Surrealiste
1924 - mid 1940s
Surrealist Manifesto proclaimed:
Unconscious mind more powerful than the conscious mind
Sought to make visible the imagery of the unconscious
Purpose of their art was to resolve the two states of dream and reality into a kind of absolute reality, a surreality
"I do not see the woman hiding in the forest"

Psychoanalytic Theory for Dummies :0)

Demonstration of psychoanalytic approach applied to Presidential race
Surrealists around Rene Magritte painting. Published in La Revolution Surrealiste December 15, 1929.











Ingres' Violin

Man Ray. Ingres' Violin. 1924.












Meret Oppenheim. Object (Luncheon in Fur). 1936.











Lee Miller
Man Ray. Lee Miller (Neck).  1930.
Man Ray.  Anatomies.  1930.










Lee Miller. Solarized Self Portrait. 1930.
Lee Miller. Women with Fire Masks. 1941.