Hitler's Bath and Other Triumphs
 
Lee Miller was a successful model and photographer.  In 1944 she became a correspondent with the US Army, taking photos that would be published in major magazines like Vogue and Life. She followed US troops overseas on 'D' Day and was one of few women photo-journalist to cover the war in Europe.  She was present when the allies stormed Hitler's apartment and it is in his bathtub that she decided to bathe!
Miller Bathing in Hitler's Tub
Lee Miller. Miller Bathing in Hitler's Bath. 1945.
http://blindflaneur.com/wp-content/uploads/2007/10/lee_miller_hitler_tub_1945.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HIlma of Klint, The Tens Mainstay, 1907.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic objective of Cubism was to depict
three-dimensional objects from all sides at once

Electric Prisms

Sonia Delaunay. Electric Prisms. 1914.
http://www.latribunedelart.com/Expositions/Expositions_2008/Delaunay_Prismes.jpg

To represent an object as the mind sees it
rather than as the eye sees it
 
 
 
Little to no perspective or illusionism
No chiaroscuro
No story to validate the subject
Modern, present-day subject

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Bal Bullier

Sonia Delaunay. Bal Bullier. 1913. Oil on mattress ticking.  38 1/8" X 12'8".
http://leverrier.etab.ac-caen.fr/IMG/jpg/lebalbullier.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Couverture

Sonia Delaunay. Couverture. 1911. Appliqued fabric.
Grosenick, Uta ed. Women Artists in the 20th and 21st Century. Taschen, Koln. 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sonia and Citroen

Sonia Delaunay. Clothes and customized Citroen B-12. 1925.

 

In 1964 Delaunay became the first living female artist to have a retrospective exhibiton at the Louvre

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Modernism and Women
Meret Oppenheim
1930 US census recorded 40% of art professionals were women
Despite the increased participation of women in the artistic realm,
modern imagery is dominated by the nude female body
The woman continues to be a passive subject
on which male "genius" artists exert control
Man Ray. Erotique Voile'e (Meret Oppenheim). 1923.
http://i252.photobucket.com/albums/hh21/ManiDeum/man.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hannah Höch
1889 - 1978

 

Beautiful Girl

"It was not very easy for a woman to impose herself as a modern artist in Germany...Most of our male colleagues continued for a long time to look upon us as charming and gifted amateurs, denying us implicitly any real professional status." - Hannah Höch
 
 
Hans Richter described Höch's contribution to the Dada movement as the "sandwiches, beer and coffee she managed somehow to conjure up despite the shortage of money." Raoul Hausmann even suggested that the best thing Höch could do for Dada was to support him financially. This was during the time that Hausmann was living with both Höch and his wife, whom he refused to divorce in order to commit himself to his relationship with Höch (Wikipedia).
 
Hannah Hoch.  The Beautiful Girl.  1920.
http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/Museum/2042/fotos/hoch.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"They all wanted this 'new woman' and her groundbreaking will to freedom. But they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes." - Hannah Höch

 
 
Photomontage - a collage of separate photographs that is re-photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seemless photographic print
"The excess of Hell falls into the coffers of Pastor Klatt for innocent children of criminals."

 

Hanah Hoch. Dada Dance. 1922. Photomontage.
http://gypsyart.yolasite.com/art-history/dadaism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919 - 1920.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dadaism
1916 - 1923

Dadaists

(Some of the) Berlin Dadaists in 1921
http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Dada.aspx

Dada = a nonsensical term used to define an international artistic and literary movement.  Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it attacked conventional standards of aesthetics and behavior and stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation.
 
"While the thunder of guns rolled in the distance, we sang, painted, glued and composed for all our worth. We are seeking an art that would heal mankind from the madness of the age."- Jean Arp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Hoch. Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany. 1919-20.
Rosenblum, Naomi. A World History of Photography. Abbeville Press, New York. 1989.

Photomontage = a photographic collage that is photographed so that the final image is converted back into a photographic print
 
Hannah Hoch organizes the photomontage into four quadrants:
Upper right = Anti Dada world
Lower right = The Great Dada World
Upper left = "Dada" springs from Einstein's head
Lower left = figure demands that the masses join Dada
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Outbreak

Kathe Kollwitz.  Outbreak.  1903.
http://windshoes.new21.org/art-gallery/kollwitz/f3_1.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hannah and Til

Hannah and Til Brugman 1947
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marlene

Marlene Dietrich

Hannah Hoch.  Marlene.  1930.
http://www.yellowbellywebdesign.com/hoch/marlene.html
Marlene Dietrich. Morrocco publicity still. 1933.
http://fredfred.net/skriker/images/fred/music/marlene_dietrich/marlene_dietrich.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Marlene Dietrich in Morroco
Madonna's appropriation of the kiss scene

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historical Context
WWI
1906 - 1920
Women gain the right to vote in Finland, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States
1914 - 1918
World War I
 
Over 37 milion deaths
1919
Treaty of Versailles forces Germany, Austria and Hungary to accept responsibility for causing WWI and pay heavy reparations to certain Allied Nations
1919 - 1933
German Weimar Republic
1917 - 1920
Russian Revolution
1919 - 1921
Irish War of Independence
1922
Formation of the Soviet Union
Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
1924
Immigration Act restricts Eastern and Southern European nationalities, bans East Asians, Indians and Africans, and regulates Latin Americans from immigrating to U.S. Coincides with growth of KKK.
1926 - 1953
Stalin gains control of the Soviet Union
1927
First "talkie" movie, The Jazz Singer
1929
Great Depression begins

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Self Portrait

Una Troubridge

Romaine Brooks. Self-Portrait. 1923.
Romaine Brooks.  Una, Lady Troubridge.  1924.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Romaine_Brooks_-_Una_Troubridge.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

White Azaleas

Romaine Brooks. White Azaleas or Black Net. 1910.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Romaine_Brooks_-_White_Azaleas.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Amazon

Natalie Romaine

Romaine Brooks. The Amazon (Natalie Barney). 1920.
http://www.jssgallery.org/Other_Artists/Romaine_Brooks/L_Amazone.htm
Natalie and Romaine
http://www.jssgallery.org/Other_Artists/Romaine_Brooks/L_Amazone.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

La Revolution Surrealiste
Surrealism
1924 - mid 1940s
Surrealist Manifesto proclaimed:
Unconscious mind more powerful than the conscious mind
Sought to make visible the imagery of the unconscious
Purpose of their art was to resolve the two states of dream and reality into a kind of absolute reality, a surreality
 
"I do not see the woman hiding in the forest"
 

Psychoanalytic Theory for Dummies :0)

Demonstration of psychoanalytic approach applied to Presidential race
Surrealists around Rene Magritte painting. Published in La Revolution Surrealiste December 15, 1929.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ingres' Violin

Man Ray. Ingres' Violin. 1924.
http://6.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_kr3ugiSAEJ1qztk1wo1_500.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Object

Meret Oppenheim. Object (Luncheon in Fur). 1936.
http://www.moma.org/visit/calendar/exhibitions/960

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lee Miller
Anatomies
Man Ray. Lee Miller (Neck).  1930.
http://4.media.tumblr.com/AyWzJclyuh95oh6xTiWHozfDo1_r2_400.jpg
Man Ray.  Anatomies.  1930.
http://media.photobucket.com/image/%2522anatomies%2522/squeegee_burble/m-man_ray_anatomies.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lee Miller. Solarized Self Portrait. 1930.
Lee Miller. Women with Fire Masks. 1941.