Hitler's Bath and Other Triumphs
 
1930 US census found 40%
of art professionals were women
Meret Oppenheim
 
Despite the increased participation of women in the artistic realm, modern imagery is dominated by the nude female body
 
The woman continues to be a passive subject on which male "genius" artists exert control
Man Ray, Erotique Voile'e (Meret Oppenheim), 1923.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

La Revolution Surrealiste
Surrealism
1924 - mid 1940s
Surrealist Manifesto proclaimed:
  • Unconscious mind more powerful than the conscious mind
  • Sought to make visible the imagery of the unconscious
  • Purpose of their art was to resolve the two states of dream and reality into a kind of absolute reality, a surreality
 
"I do not see the woman hiding in the forest"
 

Psychoanalytic Theory for Dummies :0)

 
Psychoanalytic approach applied to 2016 Presidential Race
Surrealists around Rene Magritte painting. Published in La Revolution Surrealiste December 15, 1929.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ingres' Violin

Man Ray, Ingres' Violin, 1924.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Object

Meret Oppenheim, Object (Luncheon in Fur), 1936.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lee Miller
Anatomies
Man Ray, Lee Miller (Neck), 1930.
Man Ray, Anatomies, 1930.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lee Miller, Solarized Self Portrait, 1930.
Lee Miller, Women with Fire Masks, 1941.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cahun Self-Portrait

Suzanne Malherbe

Claude Cahun and Marcel Moore, Self-portrait, c. 1928.
Claude Cahun, Suzanne Malherbe, c. 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kewpee Doll

Claude Cahun, Self-portrait, c. 1929.

 

"Beneath this mask, another mask. I will never be finished lifting off all these faces." - Claude Cahun

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Don't Kiss Me I Am In Training

Claude Cahun, Don't Kiss Me I Am In Training, c. 1929.
Claude Cahun, Self-portrait, c. 1929.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Claude Cahun, Self-Portrait, c. 1929.
Claude Cahun, Self-Portrait, c. 1929.

 

Joan Riviere's Womanliness as Masquerade 1929

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"Some critics have tried to classify me as a Surrealist; but I don not consider myself a Surrealist...Really I do not know whether my paintings are Surrealist or not, but I do know that they are the frankest expression of myself." - Frida Kahlo

The Broken Column

 
Frida Kahlo, The Broken Column, 1944.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frida Kahlo painting in hospital bed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frida and Diego on Wedding Day

The Two Fridas

Frida and Diego
on their wedding day in 1929
Frida Kahlo, The Two Fridas, 1939.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henry Ford Hospital

Frida Kahlo, Henry Ford Hospital, 1932.

 

retablo = a votive painting that is characteristically small, portable and painted on a tin or wood support

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"At last, a woman on paper!"
- Alfred Stieglitz
Georgia O'Keefe, Oriental Poppies, 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O' Keefe, 1918.
Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia O'Keefe, 1918.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"The show is strong...one long, loud blast of sex, sex in youth, sex in adolescence, sex in maturity, sex as gaudy as Ten Nights in a Whorehouse, sex as pure as the vestal virgins, sex bulging, sex tumescent, sex deflated...Perhaps only half the sex is on the walls, the rest is probably in me." - Lewis Mumford reviewing Georgia O'Keefe's work
Georgia O'Keefe "found expression in delicately veiled symbolism for what every woman knows but what women heretofore kept to themselves." - Marilyn Stokstad
"I hate flowers- I paint them because they're cheaper than models and they don't move!" - Georgia O'Keefe
Georgia O'Keefe, Red Canna, c. 1924.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georgia O' Keefe, Music Pink and Blue No. 2, 1918.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clement Greenberg's words, ". . . the greatest part of her work adds up to little more than tinted photography. The lapidarian patience she has expended in trimming, breathing upon, and polishing these bits of opaque cellophane betrays a concern that has less to do with art than with private worship and the embellishment of private fetishes with secret and arbitrary meanings." - Clement Greenberg 1946
 
Georgia O'Keefe, Pelvis with Distance, 1943.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
 
1929 - 1941
Great Depression

1933
Hitler's Nazi Party seizes power - end of Weimar Republic
 
New Deal begins - program of government spending that included two departments (the FSA and the FAP) that employed artists
 

FAP artists received famous salary of $23.86 / week at a time when a Woolworth's clerk earned $11 /week

 
40% of those receiving aide from the FAP were women
1939 - 1945
World War II
 
Largest & deadliest war in history with over 62 million deaths
1941
Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
1942
Rosie the Riveter character helps increase the number of US women working to 20 million (an increase of 57% from 1940)
 
The average man working in a war-time plant paid $54.65 / week, while women were paid $31.21 / week
1945
First use of the Atomic Bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki
 
J. Howard Miller, Rosie the Riviter, 1942.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lange on Car with Camera
New Deal - program of government spending that included two departments (the FSA and the FAP) that employed artists
 

FAP artists received famous salary of $23.86 / week at a time when a Woolworth's clerk earned $11 /week

40% of those receiving aide from the FAP were women
Dorothea Lange off Hwy 101

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Migrant Mother untouched
Migrant Mother
Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936.
Midweed Pictorial spread using Migrant Mother image.  October 17, 1936.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Florence and Daughters

Bill Ganzel, Florence Owens Thompson and her daughters Norma, Katherine and Ruby, 1979.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosie the Riveter character helps increase the number of US women working to 20 million
  • An increase of 57% from 1940
  • The average man working in a war-time plant paid $54.65 / week, while women were paid $31.21 / week

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Woman working on the A-31 Vengeance bomber in Tennessee (1943)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosie the Riveter Memorial, Richmond, CA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hiroshima aftermath, 1945.
Victim of Hiroshima nuclear bombing, 1945.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Miller Bathing in Hitler's Tub

Lee Miller, Miller Bathing in Hitler's Bath, 1945.