Women in the Margins
 

Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly solo, non-stop across the Atlantic. Among her numerous achievements, Earhart earned the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Cross of Knight of the Legion of Honor and the Gold Medal of the National Geographic Society.  She was a Depression-era hero and advocate for women's equality, saying, "A pilot's a pilot. I hope that such equality could be carried out in other fields so that men and women may achieve equally in any endeavor..." She disappeared in 1937 over the Pacific during an attempt to circumnavigate the globe.

 
Quiz 3 Due by 11:59 Tonight!
Amelia Earhart
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:AE.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

By 1893 a new female heroine emerged in the popular imagination called "The New Woman"
 
She rejects convention by:
Drinking
Smoking
Reading and pursuing an education
Having a healthy, athletic lifestyle
Dressing in comfortable clothes that allow free movement
Deciding when, whom and if to marry
Deciding how to earn money and how to spend it
James Van der Zee c. 1920s
http://soulflakes.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/van-der-zee.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frances Benjamin Johnston

Judge Magazine
Frances Benjamin Johnson. Self-Portrait. c. 1896.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f3/Frances_Benjamin_Johnston,_full-length_portrait,_seated_in_front_of_fireplace,_1896.jpg/481px-Frances_Benjamin_Johnston,_full-length_portrait,_seated_in_front_of_fireplace,_1896.jpg
John Held Jr.  Judge Magazine cover. 1925.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maria Buszek Bluestocking

Nicole Cawlfield.  Maria Buszek Bluestocking.  2002.

 

Bluestocking = a disparaging term, no longer in common use, for an educated, intellectual woman

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of 20th century art are
the characteristics of the century itself:

Boating

Rapid change
Diversity
Individualism
Exploration
 
Several broad tendencies mark modern art:
Tendency towards abstraction
Tendency to emphasize physical process involved in creation of the work
Continual questioning of the nature of art
 
Gabriele Munter. Boating. 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the transition from the old guard to the avant-garde,
women artists played active roles as they challenged the limits of tradition

 

The Abandoned Doll

Suzanne Valadon. The Abandoned Doll. 1921.
Sterling, Susan Fisher. Women Artists: The National Museum of Women in the Arts. New York: Abbeville Press Publishers, 1995.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Boat and the Town

Alexandra Exter.  The Boat and the Town.  1925.

Some of the "Isms" of Modern Art
Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Expressionism
Cubism
Dadaism
Surrealism
Abstract Expressionism
Minimalism
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the Garden

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Alte Armenhäuslerin in the Garden. 1906.

Expressionism =
1. general term for art that emphasizes inner feelings and emotions over objective depiction
2. a modernist art movement that was a manifestation of subjective feeling toward objective reality and the world of imagination. Characterized by bold, vigorous brushwork, emphatic line, and bright color.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jawlensky and Werefkin

Characteristics of Expressionism:
 
Desire to express personal attitudes and emotions
Vivid imagery
Simplified shapes
Dramatic use of color
Bold, sometimes crude brushwork
Sense of liberation and experimentation
 
Gabriele Munter. Jawlensky and Werefkin. 1908 - 1909.
http://www.abcgallery.com/M/munter/munter4.html
impasto = painting technique in which paint is applied thickley and in a manner that draws attention to the gesture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Self-Portrait at Spinet

Self Portrait with Amber Necklace
Sofonisba Anguissola. Self-portrait. 1561.
Paula Modersohn-Becker. Self-Portrait with Amber Necklace. 1906.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Mother and Child Lying Nude. 1907.
http://www.bluffton.edu/womenartists/ch10(20c)/modersohnnursing.jpg

Expressionist characteristics in Becker's work:
 
Desire to express personal attitudes and emotions
Vivid imagery
Simplified shapes
Dramatic use of color
Bold, sometimes crude brushwork
Sense of liberation and experimentation
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neeling Mother and Child

Paula Modersohn-Becker. Kneeling Mother and Child. 1907.
http://cgfa.sunsite.dk/m/p-modersohn2.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Type of Women
Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
Edmond Fortier. Type of Women, West Africa. 1906.
Pablo Picasso. Les Demoiselles D'Avignon. 1907.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.