Healing the Madness
In response to an exhibition of Louise Nevelson's work in 1946, a critic said, "We learned the artist was a woman, in time to check our enthusiasm. Had it been otherwise, we might have hailed these sculptural expresssions as by surely a great figure among the moderns."
Louise Nevelson, Sky Cathedral, 1958.











Type of Women
Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
Edmond Fortier, Type of Women, West Africa, 1906.
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.











Les Demoiselles d'Avignon

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.
Hilma of Klint, The Tens Mainstay, 1907.











Hilma of Klimt, Tree of Knowledge, 1913.
Hilma of Klint, Altarpiece, 1907.











Le Bal Bullier

Sonia Delaunay, Bal Bullier, 1913. Oil on mattress ticking.  38 1/8" X 12'8".











Basic objective of Cubism was to depict three-dimensional objects from all sides at once

Electric Prisms

  • To represent an object as the mind sees it rather than as the eye sees it
  • Little to no perspective or illusionism
  • No chiaroscuro
  • No story to validate the subject
  • Modern, present-day subject
Sonia Delaunay, Electric Prisms, 1914.











Delaunay Family 1911












Sonia Delaunay, Couverture, 1911. Appliqued fabric.











Sonia and Citroen

Sonia Delaunay, Clothes and customized Citroen B-12, 1925.


In 1964 Delaunay became the first living female artist to have a retrospective exhibiton at the Louvre











Lubov Tchernicheva as Cleopatra, 1918
Sonia Delaunay, Cleopatra Costume, 1918.











Sonia Delaunay swimwear
Sonia Delaunay in Pajamas of her own design, 1925.






















Historical Context
1906 - 1920
Women gain the right to vote in Finland, Denmark, the United Kingdom, and the United States
1914 - 1918
World War I
Over 37 milion deaths
Treaty of Versailles forces Germany, Austria and Hungary to accept responsibility for causing WWI and pay heavy reparations to certain Allied Nations
1919 - 1933
German Weimar Republic
1917 - 1920
Russian Revolution
1919 - 1921
Irish War of Independence
Formation of the Soviet Union
Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
Immigration Act restricts Eastern and Southern European nationalities, bans East Asians, Indians and Africans, and regulates Latin Americans from immigrating to U.S. Coincides with growth of KKK.
1926 - 1953
Stalin gains control of the Soviet Union
First "talkie" movie, The Jazz Singer
Great Depression begins












Kåthe Kollwitz, Attack, The Weaver's Revolt, 1895 - 1897.











Kåthe Kollwitz, Outbreak, 1903.










Recurring themes in Kollwitz's work:

  • Misery of impoverished working classes
  • Omnipresence of death
  • Sympathy with armed revolt to improve inhumane conditions
Kåthe Kollwitz, Death Seizing a Woman, 1934.











Kaiser Wilhelm

"I beg you, gentlemen, a medal for a woman, that would really be going too far... Orders and medals of honor belong on the breasts of worthy men!" - Kaiser Wilhelm II, 1898
Kaiser Wilhelm II












Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Hannah Höch, Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar
Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany
, 1919 - 1920.












Cut with the Kitchen Knife

Photomontage = a photographic collage that is photographed so that the final image is converted back into a photographic print
Höch organizes the photomontage into four quadrants:
Upper right = Anti Dada world
Lower right = The Great Dada World
Upper left = "Dada" springs from Einstein's head
Lower left = figure demands that the masses join Dada
Hannah Höch, Cut with a Kitchen Knife Dada through the last Weimar Beer-Belly Cultural Epoch of Germany, 1919 - 1920.











Beautiful Girl

"It was not very easy for a woman to impose herself as a modern artist in Germany...Most of our male colleagues continued for a long time to look upon us as charming and gifted amateurs, denying us implicitly any real professional status." - Hannah Höch
Hans Richter described Höch's contribution to the Dada movement as the "sandwiches, beer and coffee she managed somehow to conjure up despite the shortage of money." Raoul Hausmann even suggested that the best thing Höch could do for Dada was to support him financially. This was during the time that Hausmann was living with both Höch and his wife, whom he refused to divorce in order to commit himself to his relationship with Höch (Wikipedia).
Hannah Höch, The Beautiful Girl, 1920.










"They all wanted this 'new woman' and her groundbreaking will to freedom. But they more or less brutally rejected the notion that they, too, had to adopt new attitudes." - Hannah Höch

Photomontage - a collage of separate photographs that is re-photographed so that the final image is converted back into a seemless photographic print
"The excess of Hell falls into the coffers of Pastor Klatt for innocent children of criminals."


Hanah Höch, Dada Dance, 1922. Photomontage.











1916 - 1923


Berlin Dadaists in 1921

Dada = a nonsensical term used to define an international artistic and literary movement.  Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it attacked conventional standards of aesthetics and behavior and stressed absurdity and the role of the unpredictable in artistic creation.
"While the thunder of guns rolled in the distance, we sang, painted, glued and composed for all our worth. We are seeking an art that would heal mankind from the madness of the age."- Jean Arp











Hannah Höch and Raul Hausmann at the International Dada Fair, 1920