The Good Mother
 

Marie Antoinette's Bedroom

In 1781, after seven years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to daughter Marie Therese
Marie Antoinette would give birth
to three more children
 
 
 
 
Marie Antoinette's Bedroom at Versailles
http://lh6.ggpht.com/_dIgo8gp25UU/R7Zxm48k2nI/AAAAAAAACSY/izxEfYA25C8/RWC+2007+Trip+088.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marie Antoinette
Marie Antoinette with Rose
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun.
Marie Antoinette en Chemise
. 1783.
http://www.gogmsite.net/_Media/1783_muslin_portrait_by_eli.jpg
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun.
Marie Antoinette with Rose
. 1783.
http://farm4.staticflickr.com/3081/3200507055_05baed7e53.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Hameau

Le Hameau
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4b/Ferme1.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marie Antoinette with Children

Adolph-Ulrich Wertmuller.  Marie Antoinette with Her Children.  1785 - 86.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/41/Marie_Antoinette_Adult8.jpg

 

Denounced for depicting “an ugly queen frivolously dressed and gamboling
in front of the Temple of Love at Versailles with her two children.” – Chadwick

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children. 1787.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"When the preposterous charges of inappropriate behavior with her son were leveled against her, the unhappy mother made no reply. Urged anew to explain herself, she said, with extraordinary emotion, 'I thought that human nature would excuse me from answering such an imputation, but I appeal from it to the heart of every mother here present.'”
- Awesome Stories
 
 
Alexandre Kucharski. Unfinished portrait of Marie-Antoinette. 1774 - 1792.
http://0.tqn.com/d/womenshistory/1/0/I/h/2/Marie_Antoinette_1791a.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Leonard de Selva. Louis XVI Execution. 1793.
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/219315/French-Revolution/2498/The-new-regime

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Execution
Jacques-Louis David.  Marie Antoinette Awaiting Execution.  1793.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Marie_Antoinette_by_David.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emile: Or, On Education
by Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1762

 
Rousseau promoted the idea of the "good mother" = a woman who was completely committed to the care of her children and sacrificed all freedoms for their best interest
 

He demanded that middle class women devote themselves to the care of the family, breastfeeding, and keeping a comfortable home

 
"Rousseau viewed the saloniere as a threat to the natural dominance of men, the salon as a prison in which men were subjected to the rule of women." - Chadwick
Elisabeth-Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Portrait of Marie Antoinette with Her Children. 1787.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Motherhood

"[Early modern] women knew about the contraceptive effect of prolonged breast-feeding. They also made use of sponges, coitus interruptus, and abstinence, none of which was approved by the Church. Condoms made of animal bladders were known but lurked outside of respectability. The English called them 'French Letters'; the French in turn named them 'English hats.'" - Shari L. Thurer in Myths of Motherhood
average family in 17th century had 6.5 children
average family in the 18th century had 2 children
Rousseau must have seen the freedoms promised to women by birth control as threatening patriarchal control and thus advocated containing women to the domestic sphere because it was her "natural" place
Marguerite  Gerard.  Motherhood.  c. 1800.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Illustrated History.  Fourth edition.  
New York:  Abbeville Press, 2003.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abraham Lincoln

Along with the tides of political change came a new style to express the philosophies of the new regime
 
neoclassicism = a style of art, literature and architecture popular from the late 1700s to the early 19th century that revived classical aesthetics and forms and is characterized by strong geometric compositions, severe line, order and simplicity in style.

Oath of the Horatii

Vinnie  Ream Hoxie. Abraham Lincoln. 1870.
Nancy G. Heller.  Women Artists: An Illustrated History.  Fourth edition.  New York:  Abbeville Press, 2003.
Jacques-Louis David. Oath of the Horatii. 1784 - 85.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.