Lady Sculptors & Photographers
Harriet Hosmer in her Rome studio, at work on a statue of Missouri Senator, Thomas Hart Benton, 1865.











"The White Marmorean Flock"

"Strange sisterhood of American lady sculptors who at one time settled upon the seven hills in a white marmorean flock" - James Joyce
Charlotte Cushman











Harriet Hosmer
1830 - 1908


Zenobia in Chains
Harriet Hosmer, Zenobia in Chains,1859.











Harriet Hosmer, Zenobia in Chains (detail), 1859.










Hiram Power, Greek Slave, 1847.
Harriet Hosmer, Zenobia in Chains, 1859.


"I have tried to make her too proud to exhibit passion or emotion of any kind." - Harriet Hosmer











Beatrice Cenci

Harriet Hosmer, Beatrice Cenci, 1857.











Julia Margaret Cameron, Beatrice Cenci, 1866.











Puck on a Toadstool

Harriet Hosmer, Puck on a Toadstool, c. 1855 - 1856.











Edmonia Lewis
1845 - after 1911


Edmonia Lewis

Henry Rochner, Carte-de-visite of Edmonia Lewis, c. 1870.











Old Indian Arrowmaker

Hagar in the Wilderness
Edmonia Lewis, Old Indian Arrowmaker and His Daughter, 1866 - 1872.

Edmonia Lewis, Hagar in the Wilderness, 1875.











Edmonia Lewis, The Death of Cleopatra, 1876.












Edmonia Lewis, Death of Cleopatra (scale and detail), 1876.













Edmonia Lewis, The Death of Cleopatra, 1876.
William Wetmore Story, Cleopatra, 1869.











Death of Cleopatra

Artemisia Gentileschi, Cleopatra, date unknown.
Reginald Arthur, Death of Cleopatra, c. 1914.











Photography invented 1827 and by the 1850s had become accessible to many
Photography provided an open door to women interested in the arts because:
  • It had no canon, history or rules to adhere to
  • Photos were not initially considered art, so photographic practice was open to everyone (who could afford the equipment) without restrictions
  • It did not reqiure formal training (such as painting & sculpting)
  • Because it was considered a hobby, photographers were allowed great freedom of expression

Not surprisingly, women were among the first to argue the artistic merits of the photograph

The Kodak Girl, Australian Photographic Review, 1911.











Lady Clementina Hawarden
1822 - 1865


Lady Clementina Hawarden, Photographic Study, Early 1860s.











Lady Clementina Hawarden, Photographic Study, c. 1863.
Lady Clementina Hawarden, Daughters on a Balcony, c. 1865.











Isabelle Grace

Lady Clementina Hawarden,
Clementina Maude by Window, c. 1862.
Lady Clementina Hawarden,
Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude, c. 1863.











Lady Clementina Hawarden, Clementina Maude, c. 1862.











In 1861, the age of consent was raised
from 10 to 12 in England
While there is no evidence that Hawarden was deliberately exploring the topic of adolescent sexuality, the popular concern is arguably evident in her images
Lady Clementina Hawarden, Isabella Grace and Clementina Maude, c. 1863.











Julia Margaret Cameron
1815 - 1879


Rosebud Garden of Girls

Julia Margaret Cameron, Rosebud Garden of Girls, 1868.











Julia Margaret Cameron, Charles Darwin, 1868, printed 1875.











Lewis Carroll said "hers are all taken purposely out of focus- some are very picturesque- some merely hideous- however, she talks of them as if they were triumphs of art." - Guerrilla Girls

"What is focus- and who has the right to say what is the legitimate focus? My aspirations are to ennoble photography and to secure for it the character and uses of High Art by combining the real and the ideal and sacrificing nothing of Truth by all possible devotion to Poetry and beauty." - Julia Margaret Cameron
Julia Margaret Cameron, Sappho, 1865.











Julia Margaret Cameron, Ellen Terry at Age 16, 1864.
John Singer Sargent, Ellen Terry as Lady Macbeth, 1889.