Art & Revolution
“I was a queen, and you took away my crown; a wife, and you killed my husband; a mother, and you deprived me of my children. My blood alone remains: take it, but do not make me suffer long.”
- Marie Antoinette after being convicted of treason

Marie Antoinette

Franz Xaver Wagenshon. 
Marie Antoinette. 1769 - 1770.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:MarieAntoinette1769-70.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context

Louis XIV

18th century The Age of Enlightenment
1643 -1715
Reign of Louis XIV - "The Sun King"
1660 - 1774 Rococo
1715 - 1774
Reign of Louis XV
1760 - 1830
Industrial Revolution
1763 - 1781
American Revolution
1774 - 1792
Reign of Louis XVI
1793
Loius XVI & Marie Antoinette tried for treason and beheaded
1789 - 1799
French Revolution
Late 18th to early 19th centuries Neoclassicism
Romanticism
1799 - 1814
Napoleon controls France
 
Hyacinthe Rigaud. Louis XIV. 1701.
Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Twelfth ed. Vol. 1. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 2005. 2 vols.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Yellow Salon

rococo = 18th century style characterized by fanciful curved asymmetrical forms, elaborate ornamentation, opulence, grace and playfulness
 
A salon = a fashionable assemblage of notables held by custom at the home of a prominent person
The Yellow Salon, The Schonbrunn Palace, Austria
including original rococo elements
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_FfVf0AjTN9M/SwxjLr-3V1I/AAAAAAAAF7s/2GLBC3fjRjA/s1600/yellow+salon.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Versailles Palace

Louis Le-Vau and Jules Hardoin-Mansart. Versailles Palace. 1668 - 85.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a7/Versailles_Palace.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hall of Mirrors

Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Charles Le Brun. Hall of Mirrors, Palais de Versailles.
Begun 1678. Approx. 240' in length.

http://members.shaw.ca/mloukko2/images/108-0895_CRW.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1648 Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded in France
Academies grew out of the salons held at the Hôtel de Rambouillet,
which discussed literature during the late 1620s and early 1630s.
 
Louis XIV proclaimed in his founding address that the intention of the Academy
was to reward all worthy artists "without regard to the difference of sex."
   

Anne Seymour Damer. The Damerian Apollo. 1789.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Anne_Seymour_Damer_(The_Damerian_Apollo)_1798.jpg

1648 - 1706
Seven women gained admittance to Academy
1706
Academy declared itself closed to women
1770
Limit of four women members at any one time
Women not admitted to Academy school
Women banned from competing for Prix de Rome
1925
Odette Pauvert became first woman to win the Prix
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1664 French Academy begins to hold annual Salons
To show at a salon, a young artist needed to be received by the Académie by first submitting an artwork to the jury; only Académie artists could be shown in the salons. Salons were started under Louis XIV and continued until 1704. After a hiatus, the salons started up again in 1725.
 
A salon, the Salon and salon style
A salon = a fashionable assemblage of notables held by custom at the home of a prominent person
The Salon = annual display of art established as a venue to show the works of Academy members
Salon style = method in which artworks are exhibited in a gallery that utilizes the maximum amount of space possible
Piero Antonio Martini. The Paris Salon of 1787. (engraving)
http://www.arthistory-archaeology.umd.edu/ARTHwebsitedecom
missionedNov32008/webresources/courses/ARTH346/Salon.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hierarchy of genres

Abduction of the Sabine Women

1.
History painting = scenes with narrative content derived from mythology, Christian history, literature and historical events
2.
Portraiture
3.
Genre
4.
Landscape
5.
Still-lLfe
   
Nicolas Poussin. The Abduction of the Sabine Women. c. 1633-34.
http://faculty.evansville.edu/rl29/art105/img/poussin_sabine.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

During a visit to Paris in 1721, Carriera's paintings were in high demand. She portrayed many important nobles, including the King and members of his court and was elected to the Academy by acclamation.
 
pastels = crayons of pulverized pigment bound to a chalk base by weak gum water

Charles Sackville

Portrait of Young Louis

Rosalba Carriera. Charles Sackville. c. 1730.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.
Rosalba Carriera. Portrait of Louis XV. 1720.
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Antoine Watteau

Pilgrimage to Cythera

Rosalba Carriera. Antoine Watteau. 1721.
Jean-Antoine Watteau.Pilgrimage to Cithera. 1717.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.

 

More images by Carriera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis and Marie were married in 1770 when he was 16 and she was 15

He became the French King, and she became the Queen of France, in 1774

Louis c. 1770
http://www.flickr.com/photos/58409047@N04/5368778111/in/photostream/
Joseph Ducreux.  Marie Antoinette. 1768.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Marie_Antoinette_by_Joseph_Ducreux.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Louis XVII Coronation

Marie Antoinette 1778

Joseph Siffred Duplessis. 
Louis XVI in Coronation Robes
. 1777.
http://www.myartprints.com/kunst/joseph_siffred_duplessis/louis_xvi.jpg
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun.
Marie Antoinette
. 1778.
http://media.kunst-fuer-alle.de/img/41/g/41_00093075~_
elisabeth-louise-vigee-lebrun_marie-antoinette-1778---vigee-lebrun.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Upon his sucession to the throne in 1774, Louis gave Marie Le Petit Trianon for her sole enjoyment and privacy
The people of France were outraged

 

Le Petit Trianon
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Petit_Trianon_facade_nord.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Libelle

Cartoon

18th-century pornographic portrayal of
Marie Antoinette and the duchess of Pequigny
http://sappho.fromthesquare.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/11-Marie-Antoinette-pornography.jpg
Cartoon satirizing Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
http://www.marie-antoinette.org/gallery/details.php?image_id=33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1783 Adelaide Labille Guiard and Elisabeth Vigee Lebrun were elected to the French Academy

The Academy protested the election of Lebrun (and the idea of more than one female admission at one time)
but Louis overruled and ordered the election under Marie's pressure

Self Portrait with Pupils

Self Portrait

Adelaide Labille-Guiard. Self-Portrait with Two Pupils. 1785.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams, 2005.
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun. Self-portrait. 1790.
Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Twelfth ed. Vol. 1. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 2005. 2 vols.