Enlightened Ladies
 
"I would rather be a beggar and single than a queen and married." - Queen Elizabeth I
Kate Blanchett as Elizabeth, 1998
 
Reminder! Essay 2 due date moved to March 14
George Gower, Elizabeth I of England, c. 1588.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Elizabeth I

Levina Bening Teerling, Elizabeth I when Princess, c. 1559.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Some interesting facts about Elizabethan England
Shakespeare's Wife
 
  • Unmarried women over the age of 21 in Elizabethan England were free to earn money and spend it as they chose, as well as to marry whom they chose.
  • It was common for a woman to forego marriage until her mid 30s because there was no reason to jettison her freedom and property to a man.
  • It was fairly common for a woman to be pregnant during the "official" wedding ceremony (often held in June because it rained less during the time of the year). In this age, an official ceremony in the Church was not necessary or required. In fact, all that needed to happen for a couple to marry was that they needed to apply for a license and they needed to agree to become husband and wife.
  • Most Protestants were literate because they believed it was important to read the Bible for themselves rather than have it interpreted by the Church for them.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historical Context
 
1517
Beginning of Protestant Reformation

Van Hemesen Self Portrait

1520
Death of Raphael
1527
Sack of Rome - end of High Renaissance
1545 - 1563
Counter Reformation begins with the Council of Trent
1534
Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
1543
Copernicus publishes theorizes planets revolve around sun
1543
First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
1550
Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Artists
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare
1581
Netherlands declare independence from Spain
 
Caterina van Hemessen

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two major social differences between the Renaissance in Italy and the North:
  • Rise of the middle class
  • Protestant Reformation

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breakfastpiece
Artemisia Gentileschi, Penitent Magdalene,
1625 - 1626.
Clara Peters, Still Life with Flowers,
Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels
, 1611.

 

Italy
Northern Europe
Motivation for change
Humanism
Religious reform
Growth based on Classic models
Demanded more personal, one-on-one relationship with God
   
Required literacy
     
Patrons
Catholic Church
Growing middle class
Royalty/ politicians
Very wealthy
   
Market demand
Religious commissions for public venues
Genre scenes
Idealized, heroic, nude figures
Still-lifes and landscapes
Large-scale canvases and frescoes
Small-scale paintings for the home
   
Depictions
Emphasis on reason, order and logic
Emphasis on the private and the domestic
Images of idealized humans being heroic
Moralizing commentaries & appreciations of everyday

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clara Peters, Still Life with Cheeses, c. 1615.

(Peters signed the bridal knife and included a self-portrait in the reflection on the jug.)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

still-life = painting of artfully arranged objects on a table

Flower Still Life

 
"flowerpiece"
 
Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, After 1700.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Still Likfe with Plums

vanitas = an image in which the objects symbolize the transience of life and remind the viewer of their own impending doom. Vanitas paintings are usually still lifes or genre subjects

Rachel Ruysch, Still Life with Plums, 1707.