Protestants and Beers
"I would rather be a beggar and single than a queen and married." - Queen Elizabeth I
Reminder! Claire Dederer,
Beckman Hall 404 at 7 PM Tonight!!!
Essay 1 Due on Monday, March 12
George Gower, Elizabeth I of England, c. 1588.










Elizabeth I
Levina Bening Teerling, Elizabeth I when Princess, c. 1559.
Unknown, Queen Elizabeth I, c. 1575.






















Historical Context
Beginning of Protestant Reformation

Death of Raphael
Sack of Rome - end of High Renaissance
1545 - 1563
Counter Reformation begins with the Council of Trent
Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
Copernicus theorizes planets revolve around sun
First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Artists
1558 - 1603
Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616
William Shakespeare
Netherlands declare independence from Spain
Caterina van Hemessen, Self-Portrait, 1548.











Some interesting facts about Elizabethan England
Shakespeare's Wife
  • Unmarried women over the age of 21 in Elizabethan England were free to earn money and spend it as they chose, as well as to marry whom they chose.
  • It was common for a woman to forego marriage until her mid 30s because there was no reason to jettison her freedom and property to a man.
  • It was fairly common for a woman to be pregnant during the "official" wedding ceremony (often held in June because it rained less during the time of the year). In this age, an official ceremony in the Church was not necessary or required. In fact, all that needed to happen for a couple to marry was that they needed to apply for a license and they needed to agree to become husband and wife.
  • Most Protestants were literate because they believed it was important to read the Bible for themselves rather than have it interpreted by the Church for them.











Two major social differences between the Renaissance in Italy and the North:
  • Rise of the middle class
  • Protestant Reformation











Artemisia Gentileschi, Penitent Magdalene,
1625 - 1626.
Clara Peters, Still Life with Flowers,
Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels
, 1611.


Northern Europe
Motivation for change
Religious reform
Growth based on Classic models
Demanded more personal, one-on-one relationship with God
Required literacy
Catholic Church
Growing middle class
Royalty/ politicians
Very wealthy
Market demand
Religious commissions for public venues
Genre scenes
Idealized, heroic, nude figures
Still-lifes and landscapes
Large-scale canvases and frescoes
Small-scale paintings for the home
Emphasis on reason, order and logic
Emphasis on the private and the domestic
Images of idealized humans being heroic
Moralizing commentaries & appreciations of everyday










Clara Peters, Still Life with Cheeses, Almonds, and Pretzels, c. 1615.

(Peters signed the bridal knife and included a self-portrait in the reflection on the jug.)











Clara Peters, Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels, 1611.











still-life = painting of artfully arranged objects on a table

Flower Still Life

Rachel Ruysch, Flower Still Life, After 1700.











Still Likfe with Plums

vanitas = an image in which the objects symbolize the transience of life and remind the viewer of their own impending doom. Vanitas paintings are usually still lifes or genre subjects

Rachel Ruysch, Still Life with Plums, 1707.










Ruysch was regularly paid 750 - 1250 guilders ...
when Rembrandt rarely received more than 500 guilders for his work
Night Watch

Rachel Ruysch, Vase with Flowers, 1700.

Rembrandt van Rijn, Captain Frans Banning Cocq Mustering His Compnay (The Night Watch), 1642.