After the Fall
Research Paper Due on Monday, May 2!
Marilyn Minter, Bottled Blonde, 2006. Enamel on aluminum.











"The last decade has witnessed a transformation in image technologies as dramatic as those changes registered by the photography debates in the late twenties and early thirties and by various Pop manifestations in the late fifties and early sixties." - Art Since 1900
Loretta Lux, Ophelia, 2005.











Andreas Gursky, 99 Cent, 1999.











Thomas Struth, Shibuya Crossing, Tokyo, 1991.











Tony Oursler, Guilty, 1995.

 Tony Oursler, Bound Interrupter,  2012.






















"As [Jeff] Wall observed as early as 1989, 'The historical consciousness of the medium (of photography) is altered': rather than a direct 'message without a code' (as Roland Barthes defined it), the photograph might now be shot through complicated codes of various sorts." - Art Since 1900

Jeff Wall, The Storyteller, 1986.











Manet, Le Dejuener sur L'herbe, 1863.












Jeff Wall, A Sudden Gust of Wind (After Hokusai), 1993.











Hokusai, Yejiri Station, Province of Suruga, c. 1832.

Jeff Wall, A Sudden Gust of Wind (After Hokusai), 1993.











"As the critic Thierry de Duve has written, 'It is as though Wall had gone back to the fork in the roadway of history, to that very moment when, around Manet, painting was registering the shock of photography; and as though he had then followed the route that had not been taken by modern painting, and had incarnated the painter of modern life as a photographer.'" - Art Since 1900

Jeff Wall, The Destroyed Room, 1978.











Eugen Delacroix, The Death of Sardanapalus, 1827.











Symptomatically, the extraordinary prices paid at auction for photographs at the turn of the century demonstrated that the cultural value of the photograph was also increasing. For example, Andreas Gursky's 99 Cent II Diptychon sold for $3,346,456 at auction in 2007, making it the most expensive photograph at the time.

Andreas Gursky, 99 Cent II Diptychon, 2001.











The previous record was set in 2006 with two modern masterpieces from Georgia O' Keefe's collection:

An image by Stieglitz of Georgia nude sold for $1,360,000
Another image by Stieglitz taken of Georgia's hands
sold for $1,472,000
Alfred Stieglitz, Georgia's Hands, 1918.











Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #13, 1978.
Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #96, 1981.
In 2008, a print of #13 sold at auction for $902,500
In 2011, a print of #96 sold at auction for $3,890,500
making it the most expensive photograph











Then, Andreas Gursky's Rhein II sold at auction in November 2011 for $4,338,500


Andreas Gursky, Rhein II, 1999.











That price was (supposedly) trumped in 2014 by the sale of Peter Lik's Phantom for $6.5 million. The NY Times exposed a dubious art inflation scheme that has called this price into question.


Peter Lik, Phantom, c. 2014.











Our image technologies have proven so successful in their strategies, that they lead us to question reality itself
and make the possible look artificial.









When viewing the images and footage of the attacks on the World Trade Centers, many said, "it looked like a movie."
The images were more real than real, hyper real, and we often prefer it that way.












Metamodern moment


Joe Rosenthal, Raising Old Glory at Iwo Jima, February 23, 1945.
Thomas E. Franklin, Flag Raising at Ground Zero, September 11, 2001.











Attack on the World Trade Center, September 11, 2001.











Joel Meyerowitz, World Trade Center, 2001.
Joel Meyerowitz, World Trade Center Welders, 2001.











In the analogue era, we could assume that the manipulated image was the exception to the rule.
In the digital era, we must assume the opposite because the digital image is infinitely malliable.
“People are much more willing to believe that pictures lie than that they can express any kind of truth.” – Laurie Simmons
Gerhard Richter, September, 2005.





















Anonymous, Tourist Guy, 2001.











"It may be premature to say that we are living now in a 'post-photographic' age, despite the digitization of photography, for the illusions that the image can render have not yet been rendered irrelevant by the advancing picture-making technology of the computer. Nevertheless, it is a growing part of our contemporary consciousness that photography's function within our culture is at a crisis moment whose outcome is not yet certain." – Miles Orvell
Carolee Schneemann, Terminal Velocity, 2001.











The recovery in art prices has been accelerating since 2010 for example, with the record-breaking sales of Giacometti’s L’homme qui Marche for $103.78 million.

Giacommetti's Pointing Man was expected to sell for $130 million in Christie's 2015 Looking Forward to the Past sale. It sold for $141 million.
Alberto Giacometti, Walking Man, 1961.











Sold at auction in 2010 for $106.5 million, setting a world record price for any work of art
Pablo Picasso, Nude, Green Leaves and Bust, 1932.











Bought in 1973 by Michael Chriton, directly from his good friend, the artist.
Sold in 2010 for $28,642,500 million after Chriton's death, setting a record for artist.
Jasper Johns, Flag, 1960.











Sold for $119,922,500 in 2012, setting a new world record for any work of art at auction.
Edvard Munch, The Scream IV, 1895.











In 2013, estimated to sell between $25 and $35 million.
Sold at auction for $58,363,750.
Jackson Pollock, No. 19, 1948.











The three most valuable works of art to date:
sold by George Embiricos to the State of Qatar in 2011 by private sale
for $259 to $300 million
sold by Staechelin family to the State of Qatar (possibly) in 2015 by private sale for suspected $300 million
sold by David Geffin to Kenneth Griffin in 2015 by private sale for suspected $300 million
Paul Cezanne, The Card Players, 1892 - 1893.
Paul Gaugin, When Will You Marry? 1892.
Willem De Kooning, Interchange, 1955.











The spectacularization of art

In the nineties architecture and design acquired a new importance in culture at large. Although this prominence stemmed from the initial debates about postmodernism, which centered on architecture, it was confirmed by the inflation of design and display in many aspects of consumer life - in fashion and retail, in corporate branding and urban redevelopment, and so on. This economic emphasis on design and display has affected both curatorial practice and museum architecture as well: every large exhibition seems to be conceived as an installation piece in itself, and every new museum as a spectacular Gesamtkunstwerk or "total work of art."
Diller Scofidio + Renfro, The Broad, 2015.











Frank Gehry, Guggenheim, Bilbao.











LACMA 1965
Proposed LACMA expansion











LACMA redesign











In The Society of the Spectacle (1967) Guy Debord defined spectacle as "capital accumulated to such a degree that it becomes an image." This process has become more intensive in the last four decades, to the point where media-communications and entertainment conglomerates are the dominant ideological institutions in Western society.
- Art Since 1900
Matthew Barney, River of Fundament, MoCA











Like other mega-museums, they were designed to accommodate the expanded field of postwar art, but in some ways they also trump this art: they use its great scale, which was first posed as a challenge to the modern museum, as a pretext to inflate the contemporary museum into a gigantic space-event that can swallow any art, let alone any viewer, whole. - Art Since 1900
Mathew Barney, The Entered Apprentice, 2011.











"The traveling 20-year retrospective of French Conceptual artist Pierre Huyghe turns the Los Angeles County Museum of Art into a mammoth vivarium — a carefully orchestrated, walk-in terrarium-cum-aquarium. The exhibition creates a self-contained ecosystem of plants, sculptures, video projections and installation works, plus a variety of animals." - Christopher Knight
Pierre Hughye at LACMA











UpWorthy - 9 Out of 10 Americans Are Completely Wrong About This Mind-Blowing Fact


How Much Do the 1% Earn?


Who are the 1%?











Maman 2
A smaller version of Maman was bought in 2006 for $4 million, another in 2008 for $4.5 million and a third for $10.7 million.
Nonetheless, work by women artists remains quite inexpensive when compared to that of male artists.
In a 2008 survey of art's value, Bourgeois' name doesn't even appear on a list of the 100 most expensive works. In fact, the first, and only woman's work to appear on the list placed #73!
Louise Bourgeois, Maman at National Gallery of Canada, 2005.











Georgia O'Keeffe, Jimson Weed/ White Flower No. 1, 1932 sold in 2014 for $44,405,000.




Joan Mitchell, Untitled, 1960
sold in 2014 for $11,925,000




Berthe Morisot, Après le déjeuner, 1881 sold in 2013 for $10,933,245




Natalia Sergeevna Goncharova, Les Fleurs, 1912 sold in 2008 for $10,860,833




Louise Bourgeois, Spider, 1996
sold in 2011 for $10,722,500




Cady Noland, Bluewald, 1989 sold for $9.8 million




Tamara de Lempicka, Le rêve (Rafaëla sur fond vert), 1927 sold in 2011 for $8,482,500




Camille Claudel, The Waltz, 1892
sold in 2013 for $8,018,941




Yayoi Kusama, White No. 28, 1960 sold in 2014, for $7,109,000



Barbara Hepworth, Figure for Landscape, 1960 sold in 2014 for $7,083,050











More than half of the artists in the 2010
Whitney Biennial
were women


However, only 38 of 118 artists in the 2014 Whitney Biennial were women - just 32%
Only 9 of the 118 artists were black - 7% counting Donnelle Woolford!
20% of US Gallery shows are solo exhibitions of women artists
About 28% of published artist's monographs are about women artists
Art museums still present only an average of 15% women in curated exhibits, and a mere 4% of museum acquisitions are works by women artist - Guerrilla Girls
Marilyn Minter, Stepping Up, 2005.