The Expanding Domain

 
The Open Door
  • Please form groups of three students.
  • Choose one member of the group to describe the photo placed on your table to the other members. DO NOT allow the other members to see the photo!
  • One member draws the image that is being described.
  • Using the visual terminology provided on the Getty handouts, the third member writes a clear and cocise description of the photo.
  • All three members review the photo and consider what elements are missing from their description.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salted paper:

Soaked in salt concentration
Coated on one side with silver nitrate
Dried
Contact printed with negative image
 
William Henry Fox Talbot, Talbot at Laycock Abbey, Salt print from a calotype negative, early 1840s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wet-Collodion Process

1848 Frederick Scott Archer exposes iodized collodion while it is wet, resulting in a great improvement of the calotype process
 
collodion (pyroxylin) = a mixture of cellulose nitrates that is less explosive than guncotton, soluble in a mixture of organic solvents, and used especially in making plastics, coatings such as lacquers, as a coating for wonds or for photographic films
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sally Mann, Last Light, 1989.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Commercial photographers quickly adopted the wet-collodion process
 
transparency = a direct translation of reality in which subjects were not suggested, as in the calotype and daguerreotype, but were clearly stated adn defined without overt intervention
 
Wet-Plate Camera

wet-plate chemicals

Wet-Plate Chemicals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wet-Collodion Spin-Off Processes:
Ambrotype
Ferrotype or Tintype
Carte-de-Visite

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ambrotype

ambrotype

Introduced in 1854
 
Positive image on glass with an opaque black backing
One-of-a-kind image
Housed in Union Case, just like a daguerreotype
 
 
Unknown Photographer, Untitled Portrait,
Ambrotype with half the backing removed to show positive and negative effect.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tintype/ Ferrotype

  • Ambrotype image made on a thin piece of metal instead of glass
  • Metal plate painted black with asphaltum, then coated with light sensitive collodion solution
  • One-of-a-kind image

 

 

Advantages:
Inexpensive
Durable
Lightweight
Considered an instant process
 
Unknown, Civil War Soldier, c. 1862. Tintype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making a Tintype

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Albumen paper

Albumen paper manufacture

1850 first practical prepared paper produced with
albumen = egg white
 
  • Paper is made light sensitive by 'floating' it on top of a tray filled with silver nitrate solution (producing light sensitive silver chloride in the albumen layer)
  • Paper is hung to dry in the dark
  • Exposed in contact with a negative image
Albumen paper manufacture

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daguerreotype
Salted paper print
from calotype negative
Albumen paper print

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Brig Upon the Water

Albumen print advantages:
Smooth, glossy surface that looked modern
Provided sharper, better contrasted, more detailed print
Provided consistency not possible with calotypes
Gustave Le Gray, Brig Upon the Water, 1856. Albumen print.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carte-de-visite

carte-de-visite = visiting card
 
 
Wet-plate image created with a multi-lens camera and printed on albumen paper
 
Carte-de-visite camera

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unidentified Woman

Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi, Princess Buonaparte Gabrielli, 1862.
Uncut albumen print from a carte-de-visite negative.

 

more portrait cartes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hugh Mangum, Portrait Carte de Visites, 1890s