Studies in Motion
"The photograph cannot deceive; there is no power in this marvelous machine either to add or to take from: we know what we see must be true." - 1860 article in Art Journal











Yosemite Falls
Carleton E. Watkins, portrait of Eadweard Muybridge in front of the Ulysses S. Grant Tree, Mariposa Grove, 1872.
Carlton E. Watkins, Yosemite Falls, c. 1866.  Albumen print.











Shoshone Falls
Carleton E. Watkins, Three Brothers, c. 1861.
Timothy O' Sullivan, Shoshone Falls, Idaho, 1868.











Clouds, Rest Valley of the Yosemite

Eadweard Muybridge, Clouds, Rest, Valley of the Yosemite, c. 1870.


sky shade = shutterlike device invented by Muybridge  to block the amount of blue light reaching the plate, thereby minimizing the overexposure of sky in the photograph









Eadward Muybridge, Buffalo Gallop, 1887.











Count Giuseppe Primoli, Annie Oakley in Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, 1890.











1874 Muybridge murders his wife's lover and goes on trial in English court


and in the meantime...











1870s Richard Leach Maddox develops the gelatin dry plate

  • Silver salts suspended in dry coat of gelatin rather than collodion
  • Prepared by holding light-sensitive mixture of silver nitrate, cadmium bromide and gelatin at constant temperature for several days
Advantages over wet plate process:
  • Plate prepared in advance - no more lengthy preparation process
  • Resulting plate was ten times more sensitive to light than collodion wet plate allowing a much shorter exposure time
  • Allowed action shots
  • Allowed camera to be held in hands rather than mounted on a tripod
1880s glass plates replaced with celluloid and mass produced
"It has been the salvation of photography...Blessed then be the dry plate!" - Edward L. Wilson






















Muybridge's camera set up






















Eadweard Muybridge, Galloping Horse, Motion Study-Sallie Gardner, June 19, 1878, Collotype.











Etienne-Jules Marey
1830 - 1904


Etienne-Jules Marey, Bird Flying, 1886. Chronophotograph.











Etienne-Jules Marey, High Jump, July 1886. Chronophotograph.


Fusil Photographique = camera with rotating plate capable of taking a rapid sequence of separate images











Etienne-Jules Marey, Pole Vaulter, 1886. Chronophotograph.






















Cinematography = the art and technique of making motion pictures


Edison's Kinetoscope, 1902.











Eadward Muybridge, Woman and Child, 1887.











woman getting into bed

Eadward Muybridge, Woman getting into bed, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Woman with Water Jug, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Nude Descending a Staircase, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Woman Dancing, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Male Gymnast, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Men Wrestling, 1887.











Eadward Muybridge, Man hitting baseball with bat, 1887.











Eadweard Muybridge, Pouring Bucket of Water Overhead, 1887. Collotype.











Muybridge vs. Marey

Eadweard Muybridge, Man Pulling, 1887.

Etienne-Jules Marey, Measuring the Speed of a Swordthrust, c. 1890.