Pictorialism
 
Reminder! Midterm Exam will post on Friday and is due over Spring Break by 11:59 PM on March 22!!
 
 
Clarence H. White, Drops of Rain, 1908.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Alfred Stieglitz, Hand of Man, 1902.  Photogravure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pictorialism = early 20th century photographic movement which promoted the idea that art photography should emulate painting and encouraged the use of soft focus, special filters and lens coatings, heavy manipulation in the darkroom and complex printing processes
 
Characteristics of Pictorialist style:
  • Valued final image over subject matter
  • Soft focus
  • Simple compositions
  • Cropping of negative
  • Elaborate printing processes
  • photogravure = The process of printing from an intaglio plate, etched according to a photographic image.
William Fraser, A Wet Night, Columbus Circle, c. 1897 - 1898.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1900 "The New School of American Photography" exhibition held in London and Paris

 

Ebony and Ivory

Fred Holland Day, Ebony and Ivory, 1897.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"We have here merely the excrescences of a diseased imagination, which has been fostered by the ravings of a few luncatics." - The Photographic News

 
Critics disliked Pictorialism because:
Lack of definition - often called the "fuzzy wuzzy school"
Asymmetrical compositions
Extreme contrasts
 
 
Fred Holland Day, Youth Sitting on a Stone, 1907.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1901 Stieglitz left Camera Notes
1902 founded the Photo Secession
  • Invitation only group that included Alfred Stieglitz, Eduard Steichen, Frank Eugene, Gertrude Kaesebier, Joseph Keiley, John Bullcok, Eva Watson-Schutze
  • Consciously exculded themselves from traditional photographic practices that Stieglitz felt were inferior and old-fashioned
  • Wanted to force the art world to recognize photography "as a distinctive medium of individual expression"
1903 established Camera Work
 
"As far as I'm concerned he took about five good pictures in his whole life, and that was only when he ventured out of himself. He had nothing to do with me or my pictures. Everything had to revolve around him. It was one of the silliest and most outrageous cults I've ever seen. I've never liked any persons or schools that closed other people out." - Berenice Abbott in Art News, January 1981

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frank Eugene, Ms. Ide., c. 1890 - 1903.
Frank Eugene, Miss Gene W., c. 1900s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Heinrich Kuhn, On the Hillside, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Miss N

Gertrude Kasebier, The Magic Crystal, c. 1904.
Gertrude Kasebier, Portrait of Miss N.,  c.1900.

 

An interesting account of the murder of Stanford White

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Clarence White, Morning Dew, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Steichen
1879 - 1973

 

Edward Steichen, Self-Portrait, 1902.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Brass Bowl

Edward Steichen, The Brass Bowl, 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Steichen's work:
Subjective response to visual world
Photograph used as means of expression
Moody overtones
 
 
Edward Steichen, Brooklyn Bridge, 1903.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Steichen, Moonlight: The Pond, 1906.  16" X 19".
In 2006, one of three known copies of Steichen's Moonlight: The Pond sold at auction for $2,928,000 setting a record for the highest price paid for a photograph

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1904 Lumiere brothers patented the first
viable color photo process, the Autochrome
After the kinks in the process were resolved, the process was made available to the public in 1906
 
  • Transparent image on glass - similar to a modern slide
  • Filter composed of colored potato starch grains
    fixed to the top of the glass plate before exposure
  • During exposure, light traveled through the color screens before hitting the light sensitive emulsion that coated the bottom of the glass allowing selective exposure of the emulsion to color
Heinrich Kuhn, Miss Mary and Edeltrude
at the Hill Crest
, c. 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

autochrome close up

 

More on the autochrome process (in English)