June 28
Ancient Egypt in the Pre-Dynastic and Old Kingdom Periods
































































Ancient Egyptian Dynasties
Predynastic Period
before 3100 BCE
Early Dynastic
c. 3150 - 2700 BCE
The Old Kingdom
c. 2575 - 2150 BCE
The Middle Kingdom
c. 1975 - 1640 BCE
The New Kingdom
c. 1539 - 1075 BCE











"In the beginning, Egyptian legends attested, floodwaters engulfed the world. Nothing stirred amid that dark and dismal expanse. Then, miraculously, a lotus blossom surfaced and opened its petals to give birth to the sun. Rising from the blossom like a golden bird, the sun subdued the waters and coaxed life from the emerging land. Ever after, when the Nile receded and the growing season began, people gave thanks to the sun god Re and to his earthly counterpart, the pharaoh, who claimed divine powers and kept the country fruitful." – What Life Was Like Along the Banks of the Nile

Isis Nursing Horus 664 - 332 BC











"The sun god Ra shaped himself out of the waters of chaos, or unformed matter, and emerged sealed atop a mound of sand hardened by his own rays. By spitting (or ejaculating) he then created the gods of wetness and dryness, Tefnut and Shu, who in turn begat the male Geb (earth) and the female Nut (sky). Geb and Nut produced two sons, Osiris and Seth, and two daughters, the goddessess Isis and Nephtys.

Taking Isis as his wife, Osiris became king of Egypt. His envious brother, Seth promptly killed Osiris, hacked his body to pieces and snatched the throne for himself. Isis and her sister, Nephtys, gathered up the scattered remains of Osiris and with the help of the god Anubus (represented by a Jackal) they patched him back together. Despite husband's mutilated condition, Isis conceived a son - Horus... who defeated Seth and became king of the earth, while Osiris retired to the underworld as overseer of the realm of the dead. (Stokstad 51)."

Stele of Dedia with Horus, Osiris and Isis. 
New Kingdom.  1290 - 1279 BC. Diorite.











Predynastic Period


The Palette of King Narmer. c. 2950 - 2775 BCE. Slate, height 25".











Crowns of Egypt - a) White Crown of Upper Egypt (the South),
b) Red Crown of Lower Egypt (the North),
c) Double Crown of Unified Egypt