June 27
Art of the Ancient Near East

 

 

Characteristics of Mesopotamian Art:

Statues from the Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, Iraq. c. 2700 - 2500 B.C.
Limestone, alabaster, and gypsum, height of tallest figure approx. 30".

Figures with prominent eyes
Stylized arched eyebrows
Cylindrical form

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ram and Tree. Offering stand from Ur. c. 2600 B.C. Wood, gold, and lapis lazuli, height 20".

 

aditive sculpting process = the sculpted object is built up from the material rather than carved away

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bull headed lyre from the tomb of Puabi, Royal Cemetery, Ur, c. 2600 BCE
Gold leaf and lapis lazuli over a wooden core, approx. 5' 5" high.
Image: Richard G. Tansey and Fred S. Kleiner, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1996) Tenth ed., 48.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bull headed lyre from the tomb of Puabi, Royal Cemetery, Ur.
c. 2600 BCE Gold leaf and lapis lazuli over a wooden core.

http://archaeology.about.com/od/mesopotamiaarchaeology/ss/royal_cemetery_at_ur_3.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Inlay panel from the soundbox of a lyre, from Ur.
c. 2600 BCE Shell and bitumen, 12 ¼ X 4 ½ ".

http://sumerianshakespeare.com/media/1bbb9feee7aa1150ffff81caffffe41e.jpg

 

"With the invention of writing we are no longer only dealing with speculation as we did with prehistoric art, and we can begin to study the iconography (the narrative and allegorical meaning) of images." (Stokstad 34)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Royal Standard of Ur. c. 2700 BCE. Wood inlaid with shell, limestone, and lapis lazuli, height 8".
http://www.historywiz.com/galleries/standardofur.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

hieratic scale = the use of different sizes for significant or holy figures and those of the everyday world to indicate importance. The larger the figure, the greater the importance.

 

The Standard of Ur. Front and back sides. c. 2600 B.C.
Wood inlaid with shell, limestone, and lapis lazuli, height 8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Standard of Ur detail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Akkad c. 2340 – 2180 BCE

Akkadians assimilated into Sumerian culture and conquered most of Mesopotamia under the rule of Sargon I

 

Head of an Akkadian Ruler, from Nineveh (Kuyunjik), Iraq. c. 2300 – 2200 B.C. Bronze, height 12".
http://www.flashcardmachine.com/art-history-iexam1.html

 

 

Lost Wax Casting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Victory Stele of Narim Sin

Victory Stele of Naram-Sin. c. 2200 – 2184 BCE Stone, height 6' 6".
http://www.proprofs.com/flashcards/cardshowall.php?title=_64499

 

Sargon I's grandson, Narim - Sin commemorates an actual military victory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neo - Sumerian Culture 2100 - 1800 BCE
About 2180 BCE, the Guti conquered the Akkadian Empire
After a short time, the Sumerians regained control of the region
However, the city - state of Lagash remained under Guti control

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Votive Statue of Gudea, from Lagash (Telloh), Iraq. c. 2090 BCE, height 29". Diorite.
http://faculty.guhsd.net/mejohnson/ArtGudeaStele.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Babylon 1900 - 539 BCE
The Amorites reunited Mesopotamia under the rule of Hammurabi in 1792 BCE
Hammurabi's capital city was Babylon

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Artist's reconstruction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
http://www.famousbuildings.net/wallpapers/hanging-gardens-wallpaper.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Law Code of Hammurabi. c. 1760 BCE, height of stele approx, 7'. Diorite
http://www.jaspersanidad.com/blog/?p=35

Upper part of stele inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi.
c. 1760 BCE, height of relief 28".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Assyria 1300 - 612 BCE

"After centuries of struggle among Sumer, Akkad and Lagash, in southern Mesopotamia,
a people called the Assyrians rose to dominance in northern Mesopotamia." (Stokstad 40)

 

Fugitives Crossing River, from the Northwest Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Nimrud (Calab), Iraq.
c. 883 – 859 B.C. Alabaster relief, height 39".
http://virtual.parkland.edu/vmartin/fugitivescrossingriver.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reconstruction drawing of the citadel of Sargon II, Khorsbad, c. 720 BCE
http://s260.photobucket.com/albums/ii3/arthistory_photos/2%20-%20mesopotamia/?action=view&current=268_ANE_CitadelSargonII.jpg&sort=ascending

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gate of the Citadel of Sargon II, Dur Sharrukin (Khorsabad), Iraq. 742 – 706 B.C.
http://mystoryofart.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/lamassu.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ashurnasirpal II Killing Lions, from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II, Nimrud (Calab), Iraq. c. 850 B.C. Limestone, 3' 3" X 8' 4".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Neo-Babylonia
"At the end of the seventh century BCE, the Medes, a people from western Iran,
allied with the Babylonians and the Scythians, a nomadic people from northern Asia, invaded Assyria." (Stokstad 42)
The most famous ruler was Nebuchadnezzar II (ruled 605 - 562 BCE)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ishtar Gate, from Babylon, Iraq. c. 575 BCE. Glazed brick.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ishtar Gate detail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the sixth century BCE, the Persians began seizing power in Mesopotamia

 

Fragment of a belt, probably from Ziwiye. 7th century B.C. Gold sheet, width 6 ½".