June 23





mesopotamia = Greek for "land between the rivers"
Cities of the Ancient Near East 7000 - 3000 BCE
Early Mesopotamian City-States











Sumer c. 3500 - 2030 B.C.


Artist's rendition of ancient city or Ur











Babylonian deed of sale, c. 1750 B.C.
H.W. Janson and Anthony F. Janson. A Basic History of Art. (New York: Prentice-Hall Inc. and Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 2003) Sixth ed., 65.











Sumerian cylinder-seal impression of god with plow

Chariot. c. 2700 BCE. Copper, 2.75" tall.











Geometry Tablet from Ur











Three gold cups from Ur










theocratic socialism = a planned society administered from a central location (or temple)
Sumerian Gods
Anu - the sky god and head of pantheon
Ishtar - the queen of heaven and wife of Anu
Abu - god of vegetation
Enki - god of wisdom
Enlil - "lord of breath"
Indugud - storm god
Shamash - sun god
Inanna or Ishtar.  Sumerian.  c. 2,000 BC.









Nanna Ziggurat or Ziggurat of King Urnammu, Ur (El Muqeiyar), Iraq. c. 2100 BCE











Artist's rendition of Nanna Ziggurat











Female Head, from Uruk (Warka). C. 3500 - 3000 B.C. Limestone, height 8".











Statues from the Abu Temple, Tell Asmar, Iraq. c. 2700 - 2500 B.C.
Limestone, alabaster, and gypsum, height of tallest figure approx. 30".