July 27
Romanesque and Gothic

 

 

 

 

Feudal Europe
Feudalism = system of political organization prevalent in Europe from the 9th to 15th centuries having as its basis, the relation of lord to vassal
 
Society divided into three groups:
The warrior-nobility
The clergy
The common people a.k.a. serfs = an agricultural laborer bound under the feudal system to work on his lord's estate.
Limbourg Brothers. June in Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry. 1412 - 1416.
http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_bQk1kqDgQYg/TCFLtqPWp_I/AAAAAAAANtU/ENy_
g6CG14M/s1600/Les_Très_Riches_Heures_du_duc_de_Berry_juin.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ottonian Art
919 - 1024
Front cover of binding, Lindau Gospels, c. 870 A.D. Gold and jewels, 13 3/4" X 10 1/2".


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Gero Crucifix. c. 975 - 1000. Wood, height 6' 2".
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gerokreuz_full_20050903.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jesus Washing the Feet of St. Peter, from the Gospel Book of Otto III. C. 1000 A.D. Tempera on vellum, 13 X 9 3/8".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
c. 1066
Norman conquest of England under William of Normandy
1095 - 1099
First Crusade called by the Pope to retake the Holy Lands from the Muslims
1098
Cistercian Order founded
1147 - 1149
Second Crusade
1188 - 1192
Third Crusade
1200
University of Paris founded
1204
Fourth Crusade takes Constantinople
1209
Franciscan Order founded
1215
Magna Carta signed
1250
Persecution of witches begins in France
1261
Western control of Constantinople ends
1284
Invention of wearable eyeglasses
1300
Dry mariner's compass developed after ancient Chinese models
1337 - 1453
Hundred Years' War between France and England
1340s
Black Death kills about 75 million people worldwide
1378 - 1417
Great Schism divides the Roman Catholic Church into eastern and western traditions
1429
Joan of Arc defeats the English for France, becomes a scapegoat and is sent back to England by her country where she is burned at the stake

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abbey Church of St Michael's, Hildesheim, Germany, 1001 - 1033.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Doors of Bishop Bernward. 1015 A.D. Bronze, height approx. 16'. Hildesheim Cathedral.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adam & Eve Reproached by the Lord from the Doors of Bishop Bernward. Bronze, Approx. 23" X 43".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "Holy Lance" and the Medieval Crusades

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pilgrimage Routes

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela, Spain
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwenty.htm
Nave, Santiago de Compostela, Spain c 1075 - 1120.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwenty.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The "Holy Right," believed to be right hand of Saint Stephen, Hungarian Parlimentary Building, Budapest.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanesque = in the Roman manner
 
Features of Romanesque architecture:
Round Arch
Solid masonry walls
Rounded arches and vaults
Reflects rediscovery of Classic Greek and Roman texts by scholars
Interior (view toward the apse, after restoration of 1950 - 1960), Hildesheim Cathedral, 1001 - 33 CE.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. Sernin, Toulouse, France (aerial view). c. 1070 - 1120.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pisa Baptistry, Cathedral and Campanile (view from the west). 1053 - 1272.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Wiligelmo. Creation and Fall. c. 1099. Marble, height approx. 36". Cathedral, Modena, Italy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gislebertus. Eve, right half of lintel, north portal from Autun Cathedral. 1120 - 1132. 28 ½" X 51".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, Rome, St. Peter's, 359

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Mission of the Apostles, typanum of center portal of narthax, Ste.-Madeleine, Vezelay, France. 1120- 1132.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Romanesque and High Gothic portal ensembles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gislebertus. The Last Judgment, west tympanum, Autun Cathedral. c. 1130 - 1135.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gislebertus. The Last Judgment, west tympanum, Autun Cathedral. c. 1130 - 1135.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scivias

Hildegard von Bingen. The Fifth Vision of the Second Part from Scivias. 1142 - 52.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bayeux Tapestry

The Battle of Hastings. Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry. c. 1086.
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. Sixth edition. University of North Carolina, Wilmington: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2001.

 

 

Bayeux Tapestry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bayeux Tapestry

Banquet Scene. Detail of the Bayeux Tapestry. c. 1086.
Girls, Guerrilla. The Guerilla Girls' Bedside Companion to the History of Western Art. New York: Penguin Books, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aelfyva and the Cleric

Aelfgyva and the Cleric. Detail from the Bayeux Tapestry. c. 1086.
http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/zzdeco/2tapestr/2bayeux/02bayeux.html

 

More Bayeux Tapestry

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Age of Cathedrals

 

Choir glass, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140-1144
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwentytwo.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West facade, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France, 1140 - 1144.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwentytwo.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notre Dame de Chartres. Chartres, France. 1145 - 1513.

Chartres utilizes all of the hallmark
Gothic structural devices:
Pointed arch
Ribbed groin vaulting over rectangular bays
Flying buttress
Triforium (midlevel passageway)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chartres Choir

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

flying buttress = an arch built on the exterior of a building that transfers the thrust of the roof vaults at important points through the wall and eventually to the ground
Flying buttresses, Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres, 1194 - 1220.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chartres Labyrinth

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rose Window of Chartres Cathedral
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwentythree.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West Façade, Amiens Cathedral.  Begun c. 1220 – 36 and continued through 15th century.

 

Amiens 360

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amiens Cathedral.  Begun c. 1220 – 36 and continued through 15th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Amiens

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Le Beau Dieu.  West façade of Amiens Cathedral.  c. 120- 36.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West Facade, Reims Cathedral.  c. 1225 - 99.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salisbury Cathedral, England.  1220 - 70.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Typical of English cathedrals:
Square apse
Spacious sanctuary
Heavy walls
Horizontal emphasis
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West Portal, Salisbury Cathedral, England.  1220 - 70.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Late English Gothic - Perpendicular Style

 

Choir, Gloucester Cathedral.  1332 - 57.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rouen Cathedral, France.  1202 - 1880.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Roettgen Pieta (Vesperbild).  Early 14th century.

 

pieta = Italian for pity or piety; a representation of the Virgin grieving over the dead Christ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vasari credited Giotto with “setting art upon the path that may be called the true one [for he] learned to draw accurately from life and thus put an end to the crude Greek manner.”

 

Giotto.  The Lamentation.  1305-6.  Fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

detail of the Lamentation