July 26
Middle Ages

 

Mar Behnam Monastery Destroyed

 

Historic Context
410
Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric
476
End of Western Roman Empire
c. 569 - 774
Lombards in Italy
c. 589
Visigoths in Spain adopt Christianity
711
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
Iconoclastic controversy
c. 768 - 887
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814
Reign of Charlemagne
793
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empoer by Pope
c. 919 - 1024
Ottonian Empire
1054
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
Crusades begin
1453
End of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vandals - Northern Africa

Medieval Europe
http://wps.ablongman.com/wps/media/objects/262/268312/art/figures/KISH_08_171.gif

Visigoths - Spain
Franks - Gaul
Ostrogoths & Lombards - Italy
Angles & Saxons - British Isles
Normans - Southern Italy

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Medieval civilization reflects the integration of three distinct traditions:
Graeco-Roman or classic tradition
Christianity
Barbaric
These Germanic peoples carried with them the animal style from the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley
Fragment of a belt, probably from Ziwiye. 7th century BC. Gold sheet, width 6 ½".
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/highlight_image.aspx?image=ps236787.jpg&retpage=18737
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gummersmark Brooch. Denmark. 6th century. Silver gilt, height 5 3/4".
http://www.theitalianviking.com/artwork_learn/artwork_learn
_1014_early_medieval/1402Brooch.jpg

Animal style = generic term for the characteristic ornamentation of artifacts worn and carried by nomadic peoples who, for almost two millennia (B.C. into A.D.) migrated between China and western Europe. The style is characterized by use of phantasms, like the dragon.
Animal Style Characteristics:
Dominant feature is stylized animal/s
Heavy use of decorative elements
Disciplined, complex design
Composite characters
Metal craft
Primarily found on utilitarian objects that are easily traded
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial. 625 - 633. Gold with garnets and enamels, length 8".
http://s269.photobucket.com/albums/jj72/audi_loya/ART%201%20FINAL/?action=view&current=SHPursecover.jpg&newest=1

Celtic - Germanic Style
 
Cloisonne = technique where small metal strips are soldered edge-up to a metal background, then an enamel paste (subsequently to be fired) or semiprecious stones, or pieces of colored glass are placed in the compartments thus formed
Four pairs of motifs:
Standing man between facing animals
Predator/ victim
Fighting animals
Interlacing bands
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Animal Head, from the Oseberg ship burial. c. 825. Wood, height approx. 5".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cross Page from Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 700. Tempera on vellum, 13 1/2" X 9 1/4".

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scriptoria = writing workshops
 
Plan of the Abbey of Saint Gall c. 817
Chi Rho Page from Book of Kells. Probably made at Iona, Scotland. Late 8th or early 9th century. 13 X 9 1/2".
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_CijcaA9yq58/Sr5RRrVMweI/AAAAAAAADng/DyPVRkVyRmQ/s1600-h/Book+of+Kells%3B+Chi+Rho,+Beginning+of+Matthew.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Carolingian Art
Charlemagne 742 - 814
Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44, from the Utrecht Psalter. c. 820 - 832 CE.
http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_CijcaA9yq58/Sr5USVpP6UI/AAAAAAAADoY/Kgnr_pSVyEk/s1600-h/Utrecht+Psalter.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charlemagne's Empire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Frankish_Empire_481_to_814-en.svg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. Matthew from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, c. 800 - 10 A.D. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".
https://www.courses.psu.edu/ger/ger100_fgg1/art/romanesque/StMatthewGospel.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Menander, c. 70 CE. Wall painting. House of Menander, Pompeii.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm

St. Matthew from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, c. 800 - 10 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".
https://www.courses.psu.edu/ger/ger100_fgg1/art/romanesque/StMatthewGospel.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

St. Mark from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 815 - 35 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".
http://csebastian.tumblr.com/post/422225215
St Matthew, Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 815 - 35 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayeightteen.htm