Mar Behnam Monastery Destroyed
Historic Context 410 Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric 476 End of Western Roman Empire c. 569 - 774 Lombards in Italy c. 589 Visigoths in Spain adopt Christianity 711 Muslims conquer Spain 726 - 843 Iconoclastic controversy c. 768 - 887 Carolingian Empire 768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne 793 Viking raids begin 800 - 900 Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empoer by Pope c. 919 - 1024 Ottonian Empire 1054 Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic 1095 Crusades begin 1453 End of Byzantine Empire
Vandals - Northern Africa
Visigoths - Spain Franks - Gaul Ostrogoths & Lombards - Italy Angles & Saxons - British Isles Normans - Southern Italy
Medieval civilization reflects the integration of three distinct traditions: Graeco-Roman or classic tradition Christianity Barbaric These Germanic peoples carried with them the animal style from the Tigris and Euphrates River Valley
Fragment of a belt, probably from Ziwiye. 7th century BC. Gold sheet, width 6 ½".
Gummersmark Brooch. Denmark. 6th century. Silver gilt, height 5 3/4".
Animal style = generic term for the characteristic ornamentation of artifacts worn and carried by nomadic peoples who, for almost two millennia (B.C. into A.D.) migrated between China and western Europe. The style is characterized by use of phantasms, like the dragon. Animal Style Characteristics: Dominant feature is stylized animal/s Heavy use of decorative elements Disciplined, complex design Composite characters Metal craft Primarily found on utilitarian objects that are easily traded
Purse cover, from the Sutton Hoo ship burial. 625 - 633. Gold with garnets and enamels, length 8".
Celtic - Germanic Style Cloisonne = technique where small metal strips are soldered edge-up to a metal background, then an enamel paste (subsequently to be fired) or semiprecious stones, or pieces of colored glass are placed in the compartments thus formed Four pairs of motifs: Standing man between facing animals Predator/ victim Fighting animals Interlacing bands
Animal Head, from the Oseberg ship burial. c. 825. Wood, height approx. 5".
Cross Page from Lindisfarne Gospels, c. 700. Tempera on vellum, 13 1/2" X 9 1/4".
Scriptoria = writing workshops Plan of the Abbey of Saint Gall c. 817 Chi Rho Page from Book of Kells. Probably made at Iona, Scotland. Late 8th or early 9th century. 13 X 9 1/2".
Carolingian Art Charlemagne 742 - 814 Illustrations to Psalms 43 and 44, from the Utrecht Psalter. c. 820 - 832 CE.
St. Matthew from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, c. 800 - 10 A.D. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".
Portrait of Menander, c. 70 CE. Wall painting. House of Menander, Pompeii.
St. Matthew from the Gospel Book of Charlemagne, c. 800 - 10 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 13 X 10".
St. Mark from the Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 815 - 35 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".
St Matthew, Gospel Book of Archbishop Ebbo of Reims, 815 - 35 CE. Ink and colors on vellum, 10 1/4" X 8 3/16".