July 25
Early Medieval

 

Emperor Justinian and His Attendants. c. 547 CE. Mosaic. S. Vitale.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Theodora and Her Attendants. c. 547 CE. Mosaic. S. Vitale.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
410
Sack of Rome by Visgoth Alaric
476
End of Western Roman Empire
c. 5th century - 726 CE
Early Byzantine Era
526
St. Benedict establishes monasticism
527 - 565
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
Muhammad
622
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
711
Muslims conquer Spain
726 - 843
Iconoclastic controversy
c. 768 - 887
Carolingian Empire
768 - 814 Reign of Charlemagne
793
Viking raids begin
800 - 900
Scandinavians invade North, Muslims invade Mediterranean,
and Magyrs invade the east, destabilizing Europe
800
Charlemagne crowned Emperor of Holy Roman Empoer by Pope
c. 919 - 1024
Ottonian Empire
1054
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
Crusades begin
1453
End of Byzantine Empire

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. 532 – 537 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Plan of Hagia Sophia

 

The building of Hagia Sophia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The historian Procopius wrote about Hagia Sophia, "One would declare that the place were not illuminated from the outside by the sun, but that the radiance originated from within, such is the abundance of light which is shed about this shrine." - (Gardner)

Anthemius of Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus. Interior of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul, Turkey. 532 – 537 CE.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconoclastic Controversy 726 - 843
 
Icon = (Greek "eikon") image
chancel Screen - a screen frequently ornamented with sculpture, separatig the choir of a church from the nave or transept. In Orthodox Christian churches it is decorated with icons and thus called an inconostasis
 
encaustic = a painting technique using pigments mixed with hot wax as a medium
Virgin and Child Enthroned between Saints and Angels. Late 6th century CE. Encaustic on panel. 27 X 19 3/8".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydayfifteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconoclastic Controversy 726 - 843
 
Icon = (Greek "eikon") image, an image in any material representing a sacred figure or event. Icons were venerated by the faithful, who believed them to have miraculous powers to transmit messages to God.
iconostasis - a screen frequently ornamented with sculpture, separatig the choir of a church from the nave or transept. In Orthodox Christian churches it is decorated with icons and thus called an inconostasis
 
The second commandment: "Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in Heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them." (Gardner)
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, c. 438 BCE. Model of the lost statue,of which was approx. 38' tall. Reconstructed Parthenon in Nashville, TN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

iconoclasts = image destroyers
Insisted on a literal interpretation of the Bible
Believed images led to idolatry
Restricted religious art to abstract symbols
and plant or animal forms
Led by the Byzantine emperor
Supported mainly by the eastern provinces
Chludov Psalther. Mid 9th century.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Clasm_Chludov_detail_9th_century.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconophiles = image lovers
Believed that Christ and his image were inseparable
Recognized that imagery served a useful, educational and inspirational purpose
Led by the monks
Supported mostly in the western provinces
 
David Composing the Psalms, from the Paris Psalter. c. 900 CE. 14 1/8" X 10 ¼".
http://coursecontent.westhillscollege.com/Art%20Images/CD_02/highres/C003529P.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dome of the Rock, Temple Moutn, Jerusalem. 691 CE.
http://coursecontent.westhillscollege.com/Art%20Images/CD_02/highres/C003529P.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

13th century Qur'an
http://www.islamicity.com/articles/Articles.asp?ref=IC0710-3400

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portrait of Eutropios, citizen of Ephesus. c. 450. Marble.
http://www.lessing-photo.com/dispimg.asp?i=10040515+&cr=6&cl=1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Virgin and Child Enthroned. c. 843 - 67. Mosaic. Hagia Sophia, Istanbul.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/turkey/hagia-sophia-photos/apse-mosaic-mary2-c-osseman.jpg.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

David Composing the Psalms, from the Paris Psalter. c. 900 CE. 14 1/8" X 10 ¼".
http://coursecontent.westhillscollege.com/Art%20Images/CD_02/highres/C003529P.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common Byzantine depictions of Christ:
The Good Shepherd
Youthful philosopher
Infant
Pantocrator = ruler of the Universe, as well as the All-Holder who contains everything
Daphni Pantocrator. Dome mosaics, 11th century. Monastery Church, Daphne, Greece.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Meister_von_Daphni_002.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Daphni Crucifixion. 11th century. Mosaic. Monastery Church, Daphni, Greece.
http://apah.lakegeneva.badger.groupfusion.net/modules/groups/group_pages.phtml?&gid=87537&nid=
59175&openSubNav=14999&sessionid=33a13716747813bc5f4cb67696b0026f&printable=TRUE&sessionid=fab2ded4d076c7cded378be54a060ca7&portrait_or_landscape=
portrait&sessionid=fab2ded4d076c7cded378be54a060ca7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dying Niobid, from the Baths of Sallust. c. 450 - 440 BCE. Marble, height 59".
http://www.myartprints.com/a/greek-school/dying-niobid-from-the-bat.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Master of Nerezi. Lamentation, Saint Pantaleimon, Nerezi, Macedonia. 1164. Fresco.
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-HHQPBH0HvSk/TaC_M_iNI7I/AAAAAAAAAFo/pxgWDuqxN8s/s1600/49961-87537-59175-9.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Douris. Eos and Memnon. Interior of an Attic red-figured kylix. c. 490 - 480 BC. Diameter 10 ½" .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Anastasis = Greek for resurrection, to raise and to rise
 
Gloriole - the circle of radiant light around the heads or figures of God, Christ, the Virgin Mary, or a saint. When it surrounds the head only, it is called a halo; when it surrounds the entire figure with a large oval it is called a madorla. It indicates divinity or holiness, though originally it was placed around the heads of kings and gods as a mark of distinction.
Anastasis. c. 1310 - 1320. Fresco. Kariye Camii (Church of the Savior in the Chora Monastery), Istanbul.
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_B3c3J34D_oM/S8IhAidjBxI/AAAAAAAAAcU/QVVTSyMoQCo/s1600/anastasis.jpg

 

 

 

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