July 20
Early Christian

 

 

 

Historic Context
27 BCE - 395 CE
Roman Empire
Octavian receives honorary title Augustus
c. 0 - 30 to 36 CE
Jesus of Nazareth
67 CE
Apostles Peter and Paul put to death
70 CE
Destruction of Jerusalem
79 CE
Eruption of Mt. Vesuvius
98 - 117 CE
Empire experiences largest extent under Emperor Titus
100 - 6th century
Early Christian Era
293
Diocletian attempts to restore order by establishing tetrarchy
313
Edict of Milan grants freedom of religion to Christians
Imperial Christian Era
330
Constantinople becomes Capital of empire
395
Division of Empire
476
End of Western Roman Empire
c. 5th century - 726 CE
Early Byzantine Era
527 - 565
Reign of Justinian
c. 570 - 632
Muhammad
622
Muhammad flees Mecca to Medina and founds Islam
726 - 843
Iconoclastic controversy
1054
Division of Eastern Orthodox Church and Roman Catholic
1095
Crusades begin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philip the Arab. 244 – 249 CE. Marble, lifesize.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwelve.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Tetrarchs. c. 305 CE. Porphyry, height 51".
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaytwelve.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Early Christian, Jewish and Byzantine World

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mithras Slaying the Sacred Bull. c. 150 – 200 CE. Limestone, 24 5/8 X 37 ½".
http://www.fpa.ysu.edu/~slsmith/ecbyzwebpage/mithrasrelief.jpg

As Romans experience crisis of faith, see several influential faiths develop
Judaism
Christianity
Islam
Gnosticism
Mithraism

 

 

Faiths competed and influenced each other
Claim exclusivity & universality
Emphasize revealed truth
Offer hope of salvation
Honor a chief Profit or Messiah
Believe in struggle between good and evil
Practice ritual purification or initiation
Responsibility of faithful to seek new converts (Except Judaism)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Menorahs and Ark of Covenant, wall painting in Jewish catacomb, Villa Torlonia, Rome, 3rd century.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Good Shepard, Orants, and Story of Jonah. Painted ceiling of the Catacomb of Saints Peter and Marcellinus, Rome. Late 3rd - early 4th century.
http://legacy.earlham.edu/~vanbma/20th%20century/images/surveydaythirteen.htm