Making a Print


Robert Mapplethorpe, Two Men Dancing, 1984.











Making a Test Exposure Strip
Negative carrier
Printing frame
1 sheet photo paper
Using cutter outside dark room, cut photo paper into 1 inch strips
Place test strips in black envelope
Place negative in carrier emulsion side down
Check negative for dust
Set enlarger lens to widest opening (lowest f-number)
Turn on enlarger and make sure that image will project large enough to cover 8 X 10 paper. Move enlarger up and down to adjust.
Focus image on table
Turn off enlarger and make sure timer is not set
Make Exposure
Change enlarger lens opening to f8 or f11 (note your f-stop)
Place test strip under easel glass diagonal to your picture plane
Make 5 sec exposure to entire strip
Cover 4/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
Cover 3/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
Cover 2/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
Cover 1/5 of strip with cardboard and expose for 5 sec
Exposure Test Strip











Developing Your Test Strip
Take strip out of frame
Slide strip into developer, emulsion side down
Turn strip over and agitate for 90 sec
Take strip out of developer and let drip 5 sec
Stop Bath
Immerse strip in stop bath for 30 sec while agitating
Take stripout of stop bath and drip for 2 sec
Slip strip into fixer and agitate 1 min
At this point, you can check your strip by placing it in a tray and walking out to hallway
Place print back in fixer for 5 min
Place strip in wash tray for at least 5 min - or throw away
Ilse Bing, Self-Portrait in Mirrors, 1931.











Underexposed negative
Too dark (looks too light) - use smaller aperture (higher f-number) or decrease exposure time
Overexposed negative
Too light (looks too dark) - use wider aperture (lower f-number) or increase exposure time
Underdeveloped print
Too dark - decrease development time > 90 sec
Overdeveloped print
Too light - increase development time < 90 sec
Over and Under Exposure and Developing






















Making Your Print
Negative in carrier
Printing frame
1 sheet photo paper
Before removing paper from envelope, test light & timer
Set f-stop according to your tests
Open the enlarger's lens to its largest opening to produce the brightest image for focusing
Turn the enlarger light on without the timer using the second to last button on the bottom right of the timer
Position the easel in the area you plan to print
Adjust the enlarger to crop out or include elements you want in your print
Focus your image with the knob to the left of the lens
Using your test strip, determine the best exposure aperture and time
Start timer
Develop print
Man Ray, Tears, 1930 - 32.











Evaluating Your Test Strip
Always go out into hallway or classroom
All exposures too light - retest using wider aperture or longer exposure
One stop wider aperture darkens the print equal to doubling the exposure time
All exposures too dark - use smaller aperture or shorter exposure
One stop smaller aperture lightens the print equal to cutting the exposure time in half
Photographer's Rule - Expose for the shadows and develop for the highlights.
August Sander, High School Student, Cologne, 1926.











Making Your First Print