Getting to Know Your Camera

 

http://fc02.deviantart.net/fs71/i/2012/235/6/6/i_love_my_camera_by_ladymartist-d5c4e56.jp

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Parts
http://staff.drewloker.com/images/35mm%20slr%20with%20parts%20named.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Project 1 Cover Sheet
Your goal for this project is to figure out what each setting controls, and how that effects your image
 
 
Aleksandr Rodchenko,
Portrait of Mother, 1924.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ISO - (International Organization of Standardization provides standards for a wide variety of subjects)
   
General Rules for ISO
ISO 100 = industry standard for most situations and most conditions
The higher the ISO number, the larger the silver grains used in the film emulsion, and the lower the quality of the image.
 
Use the lowest ISO Possible
If you're trying to capture fast changing conditions, use an ISO of 200 - 400
If you're shooting indoors, and without a flash, use an
ISO of 800 - 3200
Aaron Siskind, Pleasures and Terrors
of Levitation #99, 1965.
http://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/siskind-pleasures-and-terrors-of-levitation-99-1956.jpg?w=655

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Common ISOs
                   
25
50
100
125
200
400
800
1600
3200
6400
         
Slow
     
Fast
100
200
400
 
Fine grain
Medium grain
Coarse grain
Less sensitive to light
More sensitive to light
Less "noise" = smooth, rich detail
More "noise" = textured and less detail

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

camera noise
crisp and clear detail
   
Robert Frank, Assembly Plant Detroit, 1955.
http://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/robert-frank-assembly-plant-detroit-19551.jpg
Robert Mapplethorpe, Calalily, 1986.
http://dbprng00ikc2j.cloudfront.net/userimages/5915/MAP.CallaLily.86.4Press.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Settings Cheat Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shutter Speed
   
The shutter controls two elements
of your image:
The lightness (or darkness)
a.k.a. "exposure"
The appearance of movement
Phillipe Halsman, Dali Automicus, 1948.
https://pleasurephotoroom.files.wordpress.com/2013/01/photo-minor-white-barn-detail-winter-1954.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Standard Shutter Speeds
     
Sally Mann, Last Light, 1990.
Minor White, Barn Detail Winter, 1954.
                       
low light
bright light (including snow)
                       
1
2
4
8
15
30
60
125
250
500
1000
2000
1
1/2
1/4
1/8
1/15
1/30
1/60
1/125
1/250
1/500
1/1000
1/2000
slow
   
fast
full second
half as long
half as long
. . . >
< . . .
twice as long
twice as long
fraction of a second
           
| - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - use a tripod - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - |
         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Shutter Speeds
City lights at night (without a flash)
8 to 30 sec with a tripod
Evening or dusk, indoors (without a flash)
5 to 30 sec with a tripod
Waterfall
1/2 to 1/30 sec with a tripod
Landscapes
1/20 to 1/100 sec
Still life scenes and portraits
1/125 to 1/250 sec
Stop action indoors (i.e. cheerleading competition)
1/800 to 1/1500 sec
Stop action outdoors (i.e. bird in flight)
1/1000 to 1/2000 sec
Fast cars and athletes
1/2000 to 1/4000 sec

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Difference between a slow an fast shutter speed (in low light with fast moving subject)
https://lh5.googleusercontent.com/-DwpphIcYCLQvpPKsbwf_1DIUPiI6aaelloQKKsy9shVEVjNKGUYd9ZKJwifNSPqcY645c_IfxAtBVHSwefwcW4yO5qSKEcdN85pROgUYsL4GRU8lLIqaJbkvQ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Frank, Belle Isle Michigan, 1955.
https://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/robert-frank-belle-isle-1955-web.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aperture
   
While shutter speed is measured in seconds,
the "f/stop" is a measurement of the camera aperture's diameter
The f-number is calculated by dividing focal length over the aperture diameter
http://www.photoble.com/photography-tips-tricks/a-beginners-guide-to-exposure-shutter-speed-aperture-iso
 
small f-number (f1.8 or f3.2) = wider opening
shorter depth of field
 
high f-number (f8.0, f22) = smaller opening
longer depth of field
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  (50mm lens ÷ f-stop)  
50.0 mm
f/1
most light
35.7 mm
f/1.4
half as much
25.0 mm
f/2
v
17.9 mm
f/2.8
.
12.5 mm
f/4
.
8.9 mm
f/5.6
.
6.3 mm
f/8
.
4.5 mm
f/11
^
3.1 mm
f/16
twice as much
2.3 mm
f/22
least light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

f Stop Cheat Sheet
http://media.digitalcameraworld.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/123/2012/06/Understanding_aperture_f_stop_chart.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Walker Evans, Main Street Ossinnig, New York, 1932.
https://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/walker-evans-main-st-ossining-new-york-1932.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Relationship Between Aperture and Shutter Speed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depth of Field
http://aptnk.in/wp-content/uploads/2011/02/depth-of-field.png
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Depth_of_field#mediaviewer/File:Depth_of_field_diagram.png

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aperture settings and depth of field
     
Robert Frank, Chattanooga, 1955.
http://arttattler.com/Images/NorthAmerica/California/San%20Francisco/
SF%20MoMA/Robert%20Frank/13.-Frank_Chattanooga.jpg
Robert Frank, Trolley New Orleans, 1955.
https://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/trolley-new-orleans-web.jpg
Robert Frank, Detroit, 1955.
https://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/1984-492-15_frank-web.jpg
                     
f/2
 
f/4
f/6
f/8
f/11
 
f/16
             
shorter depth of field (distance betwen camera and focus limit)
         
longer depth of field (distance between camera and focus limit)
allows more light in
with a blurrier image
     
allows less light in
with everything in focus
more defocus
     
more difraction
wide
middle
narrow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

long-range focus (more depth of field)
mid-range focus (less depth of field)
   
Robert Frank, Movie Premiere, 1956.
http://www.atgetphotography.com/Images/Photos/RobertFrank/frank15.jpg
Robert Frank, Leaving Blackfoot Idaho, 1955.
https://artblart.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/u-s-91-leaving-blackfoot-web.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aperture (f/stop) and Depth of Field

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

notice high contrast from difficult lighting conditions
notice the blur around the frame from difraction
   
Gary Winogrand, Kids at Zoo, 1962.
http://arnoldzwicky.s3.amazonaws.com/WinograndZoo.jpg
Gary Winogrand, Fort Worth, 1975.
http://images.huffingtonpost.com/2013-04-01-18_sfmoma_Winogrand_Untitled_1975copy.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Depth of Field Cheat Sheet

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three ways to change depth of field:
 
Change aperture (f/stop)
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change focus distance
   
 
Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, 1936.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change the focal length a.k.a. zoom setting (if you have one on your camera)
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

f/stop (amount of light let in) and Shutter Speed (length of exposure)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

low light, fast movement
daylight, slower movement
 
Gary Winogrand, Los Angeles, 1964.
http://www.zinzin.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Los_Angeles_1964_Garry_Winogrand.jpg
Gary Winogrand, NY City, 1961.
http://www.sfexaminer.com/imager/garry-winogrand-a-triumphatsfmoma/b/original/2322858/c257/AWINOGRANDLADIES.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

What were the photographer's conditions and camera settings?

 

Tina Modotti, Woman with Flag, 1928.
http://www.iamistanbul.tv/upload2/images/201207/11/tina.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Weston, Nude, 1936.
Robert Frank, Indianapolis, 1955.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Graciela Iturbide, Serafina, 1987.
https://fansinaflashbulb.files.wordpress.com/2012/03/iturbide_graciela_129_1995.jpg?w=640

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nicole Cawfield, Anti-Atkins Thin-Up Girl, Lacy, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ansel Adams, Farm Workers with Mt. Williamson, 1943.
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Photographs_by_Ansel_Adams#mediaviewer/File:Ansel_Adams_-_Farm_workers_and_Mt._Williamson.jpg