The Camera: History and Functions

 

Wall Street Journal, Pep Montserrat

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
photography = light writing
   
 
Three things needed to create a photograph:
 
1.
Optical device that can control light
2.
Chemical process that can reproduce the effects of light on a surface
3.
Chemical process that can fix light
(the image) permanently
   
 
Eventually, a means of producing multiples of the image becomes desirable
Sunlight Through Trees at Dawn 2006
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sunlight_through_trees_at_dawn.jpg
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. The Optical Device

 

Room Size Camera Obscura

17th century drawing of a room size camera obscura
http://www.gametrailers.com/users/ATIEliteGamer/gamepad/?action=viewblog&id=509359

 

camera obscura = a dark room with a small pinhole on one wall through which
a beam of light travels, is inverted, and is projected onto an opposing wall

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mo Ti

5th century Chinese philosopher Mo Ti created the first known camera obscura,
which he called the "locked treasure room"

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aristotle's vision

Camera obscura effect observed through tree by Aristotle in 330 BC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Solar eclipse observed through telescope and leaves 2012
Jonathan Ausubel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Evolution of the Camera Obscura, Predecessor of the Modern Camera
a. Sixteenth-century cambera obscura
b. Seventeenth-century camera obscura
c. Nineteenth-century table model camera obscura
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

How to make a room sized camera obscura

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Francisco Camera Obscura

Camera Obscura in San Francisco behind the Cliff
Househttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Camera_Obscura_(San_Francisco).JPG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table Top Camera Obscura

Portable Camera Obscura
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelardo Morrell.  Camera Obscura Image of Houses Across the Street in Our Living Room.  1991.
http://www.abelardomorell.net/camera2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelardo Morrell.  Camera Obscura Image of Times Square in Hotel Room. 1997.
http://www.abelardomorell.net/camera2.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abelardo Morell: The Universe Next Door
October 1, 2013 – January 5, 2014
The Getty Museum

Over the past twenty­five years, Abelardo Morell (American, born Cuba, 1948) has become internationally renowned for photographs that push the boundaries of the medium while exploring visual surprise and wonder. From intimate domestic scenes taken with a child's view to images in which an entire room is a camera obscura, Morell has approached picture making with remarkable creativity and wit. Showing a range of individual works and series — many never displayed before — this exhibition demonstrates how Morell has mined photographic history for inspiration. The exhibition was organized by the Art Institute of Chicago in collaboration with the J. Paul Getty Museum and the High Museum of Art in Atlanta.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jan Vermeer. Girl Reading a Letter at Window. 1657 - 59.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

Vermeer's Camera website

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rentesses of the Old Men's Alms House
Frans Hals. Regentesses of the Old Men's Alms House. 1664.
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. 6th Ed. Vol. 2. North Carolina: Prentice Hall and Harry N. Abrams, 2001. 2 vols.
Jan Vermeer. Woman Holding a Balance. c. 1664.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Henry Fox Talbot, Botanical Specimen, 1839.
Photogenic drawing.

Anna Atkins, Papaver rhoeas, c. 1845.
Cyanotype from the Atkins-Dixon album presented by Anne Dixon to her nephew in 1861.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1826 Niepce begins experimenting with pewter plates

 
Coated pewter plate with bitumen of judea
Placed plate inside camera obscura sitting on a window sill
Estimated exposure time of 8 to 10 hours, possibly as long as 20 hours
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1826 Niepce begins experimenting with pewter plates

 
Coated pewter plate with bitumen of judea
Placed plate inside camera obscura sitting on a window sill
Estimated exposure time of 8 to 10 hours,
possibly as long as 20 hours
 
http://greg.org/archive/niepce_positive_print_uta.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1826. Heliograph. Re-photographed with silver gelatin in the 1950s.
Bajac, Quentin. The Invention of Photography. Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York. 2002.

 

 

Niepce's original image

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dorothy Catheriene Draper

John Draper, Miss Dorothy Catherine Draper, c.1840. Daguerreotype.
http://click.si.edu/Image.aspx?image=2931&story=226&back=Story
Southworth and Hawes, Rollin Heber Neal (Pastor of the First Baptist Church, Boston), c. 1850. Daguerreotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey

William Henry Fox Talbot. Latticed Window at Lacock Abbey. 1835.
Photogenic drawing.

Marien, Mary Warner.  Photography: A cultural History.  Second edition.  Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2006.

Enhanced view of Talbot's window
http://corkap.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/latticed_window_at_lacock_abbey_1835.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

William Fox Talbot. The Open Door. 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.
http://robtaborn.homestead.com/BroomTalbot.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unknown Photographer. Untitled Portrait.
Ambrotype with half the backing removed to show positive and negative effect.

http://nicolettacampochiaroatelier.blogspot.com/2010/07/ambrotype.html
Unknown. Civil War Soldier. c. 1862. Tintype.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/roadshow/archive/200601A22.html

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unidentified Woman

Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi. Portrait of an Unidentified Woman. c. 1860 - 1865.
Uncut albumen print from a carte-de-visite negative.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Direct Positive Print
 
the calotype established a negative/ positive printmaking system
1. Negative image produced by exposing light-sensitive paper
2. Positive image produced by contact printing onto another piece of paper
 
Negative Image
Positive Image
David Octavius Hill and Robert Adamson. Lady Elizabeth Eastlake. c. 1845.  Calotype.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Edward Weston, Shell, 1927.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Robert Frank. Rodeo- New York City. 1955 - 56.
Frank, Robert. The Americans. SCALO Publishers, New York. 2000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Camera Parts
http://staff.drewloker.com/images/35mm%20slr%20with%20parts%20named.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

How to Load Film into Your Camera
http://2ndhandphoto.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/loadingfilm-6242.jpg