Early Renaissance in Italy
"I strove to imitate nature as clearly as I could, and with all the perspective I could produce, to have excellent compositions with many figures." - Lorenzo Ghiberti
Iconographic Analysis Due February 16
Ghiberti, Self-Portrait, Ghiberti from the Gates of Paradise (East doors), c. 1435.











Chicago Manual of Style Footnote citations (no Bibliography)

1 Author’s name, Title (Place of publication: Publisher, date), page #.

Single Author Book

2 Steven T. Brown, Tokyo Cyberpunk: Posthumanism in Japanese Visual Culture (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010), 124.

Magazine or Journal Article

3 Bill Wasik, “#Riot: How Social Media Fuels Social Unrest.” Wired, January 2012, 76-83.

Journal Article Accessed through Online Database or Website
4 Erwin Panofsky, “Jan Van Eyck’s Arnolfini Portrait,” The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 64, no. 372 (1934): 117-119, & 122-127, accessed June 2016, http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0951-0788%28193403%2964%3A372%3C117%3AJVEAP%3E2.o.CO%3B2-9
Additional Resources:
Purdue OWL CMS style guide
Berkeley's guide to evaluating sources











Using the Art Historical Methodologies

What questions do I use when I am using each method?
Historical Context
Biography & Autobiography










Early Renaissance Map


Historical Context
Joan of Arc liberates Orleans
Gutenberg Bible
Joan of Arc burned at the stake
Exiled Cosimo de Medici returns to control Florence
Platonic Academy founded in Florence
Guttenberg begins selling one of the first books published with movable type in the West (movable type invented in China about 400 years earlier)
Turks take Constantinople
Lorenzo de Medici rules Republic of Florence


Portuguese explorers reach Africa's Gold Coast
Pope Innocent VII succeeds to papacy and outlaws witchcraft
Columbus travels to West Indies and South America
First road map of Europe published
Beginning of Protestant Reformation
Gutenberg Bible
First circumnavigation of the earth
Sack of Rome











Vitruvian Man

Significant developments in the western world view
become influential by the 1400s:
  • Increased exploration of the world
  • Scientific investigation of nature and the human body
  • Medieval religious zeal becomes more tempered
  • Development of the city-state and nations
  • Growth of capitalism and trade
  • Guilds become more powerful and women's participation in them less common
  • The artist's social standing is eventually
    elevated from skilled laborer to gifted intellectual
Leonardo da Vinci, Vitruvian Man, c. 1487.











Humanism = a cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology.

Francesco Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism." He was a scholar and a poet who lived in Florence in the 1300s who studied poets and philosophers from Ancient Rome such as Cicero and Virgil.

Michelangelo, Pieta, Saint Peter's Basilica, 1498 - 1499.











Renaissance Humanism
an emphasis on education and on expanding knowledge (especially of classical antiquity), the exploration of individual potential and a desire to excel, and a commitment to civic responsibility and moral duty
  • Renewed interest in classic Greece and Rome
  • Belief that Man was the measure of all things
  • Belief that humanity could achieve perfection through education
  • Valued a balance between faith and reason
  • Stressed man's superiority over nature
  • Interest and value in the individual
Fra Filippo, Madonna and Child, c. 1440.











Andrea Pisano, Florence Baptistry di San Giovanni (south), 1329 - 1336.











Filippo Brunelleschi, Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistry of Florence Cathedral, 1401 - 1402.
Lorenzo Ghiberti. Sacrifice of Isaac, competition panel for east doors, baptistry of Florence Cathedral,
1401 – 1402.











Lorenzo Ghiberti, Gates of Paradise (East Doors of Florence Baptistry), 1425 - 1452.


Restoration of Baptistry Doors











Lorenzo Ghiberti, Adam and Eve (East Doors of Florence Baptistry), 1425 - 1452.











Lorenzo Ghiberti, Jacob and Esau, c. 1435.


"And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to enquire of the Lord. And the Lord said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger." (Genesis 25:22–23)











Filippo Brunelleschi, Dome of Florence Cathedral, 1417 - 1436.











the dome of the Florence Cathedral incorporates Gothic and Renaissance elements:
Gothic elements
Renaissance elements
Pointed arch
Octagonal outer shell




















Architectural View, Wall painting from a villa at Boscoreale, near Naples, 1st century BCE.











Linear Perspective = a system for representing three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface by delineating a horizon line and multiple orthogonal lines


Raphael, School of Athens, c. 1510 - 1511.





















Masaccio, Trinity with the Virgin, Saint John the Evangelist, and Donors, c. 1425 - 1428.