The Modern Age
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation.  Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as welll as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.











Socratic Circle Areas of Expertise
Early Renaissance - Jason
Neoclassicism - Erin
High Renaissance in Italy - Catherine
Romanticism - Caitilin
High Renaissance in Northern Europe - Cullen
Early photography
Northern Renaissance
Realism - Hannah
Mannerism in Italy - Annie
Mannerism in Northern Europe - Keanu
Impressionism - Alexandra
Mannerism in Spain - Add7
Post Impressionism - Kendyl
Baroque Italy - Angus
Symbolism - Sloane
Baroque Spain - Lauren
Baroque in Flanders - Claire
Expressionism - EA
Baroque in Netherlands - Ben
Cubism - Justin
Rococo - Megan














Extra Credit Opportunities (you may choose one) 25 Points
Please view an episode of Simon Schama's The Power of Art and report on the presentation of information. How was your understanding of this artist's work either extended, confused, or maintained? What effect did the documentary have on your appreciation for the works considered during this semester? What new insights can you offer in response to the episode?
Van Gogh











Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881-1882.






















Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881-1882.








Historic Context
1861 - 1865
Civil War in the United States
Forever Free
Assassination of Lincoln
Susan B. Anthony organizes Women's Suffrage movement
Franco Prussian War
Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
First light bulb invented
First automobiles
1886 Last Impressionist exhibition
Development of motion pictures
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867.










1885 - 1900
"I had wrung Impressionism dry, and I finally came to the conclusion that I knew neither how to paint nor how to draw. In a word, Impressionism was a blind alley, as far as I was concerned." - Renoir
Pierre- Auguste Renoir, The Bathers, 1918.











Post-impressionism = general term applied to various personal styles of painting that developed as a reaction against the formless and aloof quality of Impressionism.
  • Post-Impressionists developed very personal styles
  • Artists begin to focus on individual expression
  • General move towards complete abstraction
Vincent Van Gogh, Bedroom, 1889.











Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Clear and cohesive; characterized by loose, quick brushwork, and an examination of color and light
Various artists develop personal styles
To capture momentary impressions
No overall goal
Some sought to solidify form and composition
Some sought personal and spiritural expression
Typical subject:
Nature and everyday life
Continued move away from naturalism towards complete abstraction











Paul Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, c. 1885 - 1887.











Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples, 1890 – 1894.