Cubism
 
Timeline Due
 
Socratic Circle Final on Tuesday, May 16
8 to 10:30 AM
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Twentieth Century - the age of "isms"

 

Historical Context

Rapid change characterizes turn of 20th century

   
1900
Sigmund Freud publishes The Interpretation of Dreams

Cities install electric street lamps while indoor plumbing and electricity installed in homes

Kodak introduces $1 Brownie cameras
Max Planck formulates Quantum Theory
1903
Wright Brothers’ first flight
1905
Einstein proposes Theory of Relativity
Freud publishes Theory of Sexuality
1908
Henry Ford introduces the Model T
1912
Titanic sinks
1914 - 1918
World War I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, At the Moulin Rouge, 1892 - 1895.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of 20th century art are the characteristics of the century itself:
Rapid change
Diversity
Individualism
Exploration
 
Sleep
Sleeping Muse
The Newborn
Constantin Brancusi, Sleep, 1908.
Constantin Brancusi, Sleeping Muse, 1909 - 1911.
Constantin Brancusi, The Newborn, 1915.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Several broad tendencies mark modern works:
Tendency towards abstraction
Tendency to emphasize physical process involved in creation of the work
Continual questioning of the nature of art
 
Mary Cassatt,
Woman in Black Hat, 1900.
Henri Matisse,
Woman with a Hat, 1905.
Gabrielle Munter, Portrait of Marianne von Werefkin, 1909.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Three main currents in art:
Expressionism
Abstraction
Fantasy
 

 

 

Paula Moderson-Becker,
Self-Portrait, 1906.

Pablo Picasso,
La Rêve
, 1932.
Gustav Klimt,
The Kiss
, 1907 - 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Expressionism =
general term for art that emphasizes inner feelings and emotions over objective depiction
 
a modernist art movement that was a manifestation of subjective feeling toward objective reality and the world of imagination. Characterized by bold, vigorous brushwork, emphatic line, and bright color
 
 
Egon Schiele, Nude Self-Portrait, Grimacing, 1910.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of Expressionist Styles:
 
Desire to express attitudes and emotions
Vivid imagery
Often angular, simplified depictions
Dramatic use of color
Bold, sometimes crude brushwork
Sense of liberation and experimentation
 
Henri Matisse, The Joy of Life, 1905 - 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Fauvism
1905 - 1907
 
les fauves = the wild beasts

 

 

Henri Matisse, Woman with the Hat, 1905.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mountains at Collioure

Andre Derain, Mountains at Collioure, 1905.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Die Brucke (The Bridge
1905
 
"Named for a passage in Friedrich Nietzsche's Thus Spake Zarathustra that spoke of contemporary humanity's potential to be the evolutionary bridge to a more perfect superman of the future." - Marilyn Stokstad

 

 

Street, Berlin

Ernst Ludwig Kirchner, Street, Berlin, 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bue Rider Group
1911

 

Improvisation No. 30

Vassily Kandinsky, Improvisation No. 30 (Cannons), 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synesthesia = sensation felt in one part of the body when another part is stimulated

 

"Color is the keyboard, the eyes are the hammers, the soul is the piano with many strings.
The artist is the hand that plays, touching one key or another, to cause vibrations in the soul." - Vassily Kandinsky

 

Vassily Kandinsky, Composition No. 8, 1923.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstraction
Bird in Space
 
Essence = that which makes something what it is; intrinsic, fundamental nature or most important quality
 
"Simplicity is not a means to an end in art, but one arrives at simplicity in spite of oneself, in approaching the real sense of things." - Brancusi
 
Constantin Brancusi, Bird in Space, c. 1928.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Les Demoiselles D'Avignon

Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Les Demoiselles D'Avignon
N'gil Fang Mask, Gabon
Ancient Iberian sculpture
Type of Women
Pablo Picasso, Les Demoiselles D'Avignon, 1907.
Edmond Fortier. Type of Women, West Africa. 1906.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georges Braque (brak) saw Les Demoiselles in Picasso's studio in 1907 and was powerfully moved.
 
The two artists immediately began to discuss their ideas about form.
Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, 1950.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Picasso and Braque based their investigations on three concepts important to Cezanne:
geometricity (simplifying form into shape), simultaneity (multiple views), and passage (time).
     
Paul Cezanne,
Standing Nude Woman,
c. 1898 - 1899.
Pablo Picasso,
Nude with Raised Arm and Drapery, 1907.
Georges Braque,
Big Nude,
1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In the summer of 1908, Braque made a series of landscape paintings in the small French fishing village, L'Estaque, that became more and more abstract.
 
L'Estaque today
Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque,
1907 - 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque, 1908.
Georges Braque, The Viaduct at L'Estaque, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Critic Louis Vauxcelles described the works as "bizarre cubes," and Henri Mattise called them "little cube" paintings.
 
Georges Braque, Houses at L'Estaque, 1908.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cubism sought to portray the experience of a form -
     
     
how the mind understands an object rather than how the eye sees it.
     
Robert Delaunay, Eiffel Tower, 1911.
Juan Gris, Still Life with Flowers, 1912.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dora Maar
Man Ray, Picasso and Maar, n.d.
 
Man Ray, Dora Maar, n.d.
Pablo Picasso, Dora Maar au Chat, 1941.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rule Breaking Characteristizes Cubism:
Bodies broken into small planes, tilted and askew
Background and foreground blended to compress space
Linear perspective and realism ignored
Space and time flow through the figure because they are not fixed
Georges Braque, The Portuguese, 1911.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

"You may give all the explanations you like, but your painting makes one feel as if you were trying to make us eat cotton waste and wash it down with kerosene."
- Georges Braque
The Doof Wagon (left) accompanies Immortan Joe's Gigahorse - a Siamese twin of two 1959 Cadillac Devilles on steroids - in hot pursuit across the desert.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two phases of Cubism
 
Analytic Cubism
1909 - 1911
Subject broken down into pieces that are spread out
Key Phrase -> simultaneity of vision
 
Synthetic Cubism
1912 - 1914
Unrelated pieces built up to create a unified form
Key Phrase -> metamorphosis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analytic Cubism
Synthetic Cubism
   
Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910.
Pablo Picasso, The Violin, 1913.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Still Life with Chair Caning

Pablo Picass, Still Life with Chair Caning, 1911 - 1912.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Guernica

Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937.

 

"Painting is not done to decorate apartments. It is an instrument of war for attack and defense against the enemy." - Picasso