The Rejected
Breakfast in Bed
Mary Cassatt, Breakfast in Bed, 1879.











1863 Academy rejected nearly 3,000
works for the annual Salon

Italian Music Hall

Provoking great deal of public protest
Emperor Napolean III ordered an exhibition of the refused work that was eventually called the Salon des Refuses (Salon of the Rejected)
Artists used the exhibition as a declaration
of their independence from the Academy
Eva Gonzales, The Italian Music Hall Box, c. 1874.











Victorine Meurent
Salon des Refuses = Salon of the Rejected 1863
Avant-garde = artists or works that are novel or experimental
Relates to the military term for soldiers who explore the battlefield ahead of the advancing army
Suggests a small group of intellectuals that open pathways through new cultural or political terrain for society to follow
Edouard Manet, Victorine Meurent in the
Costume of an Espada, 1862.











Adolphe William Bougureau, Charity, 1878.
Cabanel, Nymph and Satyr, 1860.











1874 -1890


The Impressionists radically departed from Academic art by rejecting:
  • Linear perspective
  • Balanced composition
  • Idealized figures
  • Chiaroscuro
  • Painting in the controlled environment of the studio
Monet, Monet Family, 1874.