Psychoanalytic or Marxist Analysis Due

Woman at the Toilette
Time for Student Evaluations
Berthe Morisot, Woman at Her Toilette, 1875.











Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881-1882.






















Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881-1882.










Historic Context
1861 - 1865
Civil War in the United States
Forever Free
Assassination of Lincoln
Susan B. Anthony organizes Women's Suffrage movement
Franco Prussian War
Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone
First light bulb invented
First automobiles
1886 Last Impressionist exhibition
Development of motion pictures
Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867.










1885 - 1900
"I had wrung Impressionism dry, and I finally came to the conclusion that I knew neither how to paint nor how to draw. In a word, Impressionism was a blind alley, as far as I was concerned." - Renoir
Pierre- Auguste Renoir, The Bathers, 1918.











Post-impressionism = general term applied to various personal styles of painting that developed as a reaction against the formless and aloof quality of Impressionism.
  • Post-Impressionists developed very personal styles
  • Artists begin to focus on individual expression
  • General move towards complete abstraction
Vincent Van Gogh, Bedroom, 1889.











Impressionism vs. Post-Impressionism
Clear and cohesive; characterized by loose, quick brushwork, and an examination of color and light
Various artists develop personal styles
To capture momentary impressions
No overall goal
Some sought to solidify form and composition
Some sought personal and spiritural expression
Typical subject:
Nature and everyday life
Continued move away from naturalism towards complete abstraction











Paul Cezanne, Mont Sainte-Victoire, c. 1885 - 1887.











Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Basket of Apples, 1890 – 1894.











Paul Cezanne, The Large Bathers, 1906.











Sunday on La Grande Jatte

Georges Seurat, A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte, 1884 - 1886.











Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte

divisionism (pointilism) = style of painting in which non-primary colors are generated, not by the mixing of pigments in the palette nor by using pigments directly, but by the visual mixing of points of primary colors, placed in close proximity to each other
"I painted like that because I wanted to get through to something new - a kind of painting that was my own."
- Georges Seurat
Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte