The Luncheon of the Boating Party
"For me, a picture should be a pleasant thing, joyful and pretty- yes pretty! There are quite enough unpleasant things in life without the need for us to manufacture more." - Renoir
Pierre- Auguste Renoir, The Luncheon of the Boating Party, 1881.











Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed during World War II). 8 1/2' X 5' 3".


Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish The Communist Manifesto in 1848










Gustave Courbet, The Painter's Studio, 1855. 12' X 19 1/2'.











Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857.











Honore Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage, c. 1862.











Luncheon on the Grass

Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass (Le Dejeuner Sur L'Herbe), 1863.


"A commonplace woman of the demimonde, as naked as can be, shamelessly lolls between two dandies dressed to the teeth. These latter look like schoolboys on a holiday, perpetrating an outrage to play the man…this is a young man's practical joke-a shameful, open sore." - Gardner's Art Through the Ages
"I myself shouldn't like to meet this young man...I should be obliged to tell him I don't understand anything about his paintings, and I don't want to be disagreeable with him." - Gustave Courbet











Pastoral Concert
Luncheon on the Grass
Titian and Giorgione, The Pastoral Concert, c. 1508.
Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863.











Luncheon on the Grass
Manet breaks with convention:
  • No chiaroscuro
  • No linear perspective
  • Not a classic landscape
  • Figures do not seem to relate to one another
  • Thick and full brush strokes that call attention to the act of painting
  • Vast planes of color
  • Portion of the painting left unfinished
Edouard Manet, Luncheon on the Grass, 1863.











Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863.











Venus of Urbino
Titian, Venus of Urbino, c. 1538.
Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863.


Titian vs. Manet
Rounded and soft
Angular and flat
Looks lovingly at the viewer
Confronts the viewer with a cold and indifferent stare
Dog sleeps
Cat hisses











1863 Academy rejected nearly 3,000
works for the annual Salon

Italian Music Hall

Provoking great deal of public protest
Emperor Napolean III ordered an exhibition of the refused work that was eventually called the Salon des Refuses (Salon of the Rejected)
Artists used the exhibition as a declaration
of their independence from the Academy
Eva Gonzales, The Italian Music Hall Box, c. 1874.












Victorine Meurent
Salon des Refuses = Salon of the Rejected 1863
Avant-garde = artists or works that are novel or experimental
Relates to the military term for soldiers who explore the battlefield ahead of the advancing army
Suggests a small group of intellectuals that open pathways through new cultural or political terrain for society to follow
Edouard Manet, Victorine Meurent in the
Costume of an Espada, 1862.