The Modern World
A Bar at the Folies-Bergere
Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct, and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology, an dpractical experimentation. Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as well as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement ofte at the expense of the worker.
Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1881 - 1882.











Romantic landscape painting generally took two forms:
The dramatic:
The naturalistic:
  • Emphasized turbulent or fantastic natural scenery
  • Presented closely observed images of tranquil nature
  • Aimed to stir viewer's emotions and arouse feeling of the sublime
  • Meant to communicate religious reverence of the landscape
  • Sublime = tending to inspire awe because of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth
  • Counteracta the alienating effects of industrialization

Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.
John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.











John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.











The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallard William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840.











Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.











Jacques Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800 - 1801.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.











"Before 1825, Americans considered nature menacing. The first thing colonial settlers did was burn or hack down vast tracts of virgin woods to make clearings for fields and villages. They admired nature only when it was tamed in plantations and gardens. After 1830, America's natural wonders became a bragging point as tides of settlers poured westward, pushing back frontiers, the wilderness became a symbol of America's unspoiled national character." - Marilyn Stokstad
The Oxbow
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836.











Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1827. Heliograph.











The Artist's Studio
The Open Door
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.











Salted paper print from calotype negative
Albumen paper print

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.










Realism = term used to describe a kind of naturalism with a socialist political message
  • Based on the idea that ordingary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art
  • Strives to depict ordinary existence without idealism, exoticism or nostalgia
  • Insisted on precise imitation of visual perceptions without alteration
Gustave Courbet, View of Ornans, 1850.