New Perspectives
J.M.W. Turner, Snowstorm: Snow Storm: Steam-Boat off a Harbour's Mouth, 1842.











Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.












Oath of the Horatii

Third of May 1808
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Francisco Goya, Third of May 1808, 1814 - 1815.











Francisco Goya, Nude Maja, c. 1797 - 1800.
Francisco Goya, Clothed Maja, c. 1800.











Saturn Devouring His Children
Francisco Goya, Witches' Flight, 1797 - 1798.
Francisco Goya, Saturn Devouring His Children, 1819 - 1823.











Raft of the Medusa

Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.











Theodore Gericault, Study of Hands and Feet, 1818 - 1819.











Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.











Eugene Delacroix, Death of Sardanapalus, 1827.























Eugene Delacroix, Liberty Leading the People, 1830.











Ingres vs. Delacroix
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with a Slave, 1839 - 1840.
Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers, 1834.
Those who favored line favored Ingres
Those who favored color favored Delacroix
  • Superb draftsmanship
  • Supreme colorist
  • Emphasis on line
  • Emphasis on drama and emotion
  • Ideal form
  • More painterly form
  • Delacroix called the art of Ingres "the complete expression of an incomplete intellect"
  • Ingres instrumental in preventing Delacroix's election into Academeie des Beaux Arts until 1857











Romantic Landscape Painting


Caspar David Friedrich, Monk by the Sea, 1808 - 1810.











Romantic Landscape Painting
Romantic landscape painting generally took two forms:
The dramatic:
The naturalistic:
  • Emphasized turbulent or fantastic natural scenery
  • Presented closely observed images of tranquil nature
  • Aimed to stir viewer's emotions and arouse feeling of the sublime
  • Meant to communicate religious reverence of the landscape
  • Sublime = tending to inspire awe because of outstanding spiritual, intellectual or moral worth
  • Counteracta the alienating effects of industrialization











Caspar David Friedrich, Two Men Contemplating the Moon, 1819 - 1820.











Caspar David Friedrich, Wanderer Above a Sea of Mist, 1824.










John Constable, The Haywain, 1821.











The Slave Ship

Joseph Mallard William Turner, The Slave Ship, 1840.











Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.











Jacques Louis David, Napoleon Crossing the Saint-Bernard, 1800 - 1801.
Joseph Mallord William Turner, Snowstorm: Hannibal and His Army Crossing the Alps, 1812.











"Before 1825, Americans considered nature menacing. The first thing colonial settlers did was burn or hack down vast tracts of virgin woods to make clearings for fields and villages. They admired nature only when it was tamed in plantations and gardens. After 1830, America's natural wonders became a bragging point as tides of settlers poured westward, pushing back frontiers, the wilderness became a symbol of America's unspoiled national character." - Marilyn Stokstad
The Oxbow
Thomas Cole, The Oxbow, 1836.











Joseph Nicephore Niepce, View from His Window at Le Gras, c. 1827. Heliograph.











The Artist's Studio
The Open Door
Louis Jacques Mande Daguerre, Still Life in Studio, 1837. Daguerreotype.
William Fox Talbot, The Open Door, 1843. Salted paper print from calotype negative.











Salted paper print from calotype negative
Albumen paper print

Southworth and Hawes, Portrait of an Unknown Woman, c. 1850.
David Octavius Hill, Miss Crampton of Dublin, c. 1845.
Nadar, Sarah Bernhardt, 1865.










Realism = term used to describe a kind of naturalism with a socialist political message
  • Based on the idea that ordingary people and everyday activities are worthy subjects for art
  • Strives to depict ordinary existence without idealism, exoticism or nostalgia
  • Insisted on precise imitation of visual perceptions without alteration
Gustave Courbet, View of Ornans, 1850











Gustave Courbet, The Stone Breakers, 1849 (destroyed during World War II). 8 1/2' X 5' 3".


Karl Marx and Friedrick Engels publish The Communist Manifestoin 1848










Gustave Courbet, The Painter's Studio, 1855. 12' X 19 1/2'.











Jean Francois Millet, The Gleaners, 1857.











Honore Daumier, The Third-Class Carriage, c. 1862.