Revolution
 

Marie Antoinette

“I was a queen, and you took away my crown; a wife, and you killed my husband; a mother, and you deprived me of my children. My blood alone remains: take it, but do not make me suffer long.”

- Marie Antoinette after being convicted of treason
 
No Class on Tuesday, April 4
 

Franz Xaver Wagenshon, Marie Antoinette, 1769 - 1770.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
 
18th century
The Age of Enlightenment
1643 -1715
Reign of Louis XIV - "The Sun King"
1762
Mozart tours Europe at age 6
1660 - 1774 Rococo

1715 - 1774
Reign of Louis XV
1760 - 1830
Industrial Revolution
1763 - 1781
American Revolution
1774 - 1792
Reign of Louis XVI
1793
Loius XVI & Marie Antoinette tried for treason and beheaded
1789 - 1799
French Revolution
Late 18th to early 19th centuries Neoclassicism
Romanticism
1799 - 1814
Napoleon controls France
 
Antoine Francois Callet, Louis XVI, c. 1788.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Important Enlightenment Ideas:
  • Belief that humanity and its institutions could be reformed and perfected
  • Proposed equal rights to all white men
  • Free men and women could be expected to act morally and rationally
  • Belief that the purpose of humanity was to pursue their own happiness and fulfillment
  • Purpose of the state was to facilitate this pursuit
Joseph Wright of Derby, A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery, c. 1763 - 1765.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Portuguese word "barroco" = irregularly shaped pearl
 
French word "rocaille" = artificial shell or rock ornament popular for gardens
 
Germain Boffrand, Salon de la Princesse, Hotel de Soubise, Begun 1732.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rosalba Carriera, Charles Sackville, 2nd Duke of Dorset, c. 1730.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Characteristics of the Rococo style:
Highly decorative
Lighthearted and playful
Element of fantasy and escape
 
Arabesque = linear surface decoration based on foliage and calligraphic forms, usually characterized by flowing lines and swirling shapes
Johann Balthasar Neumann, Kaisersaal (Imperial Hall),
1719 - 1744.
Frankfurt, Germany.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Antoine Watteau, Le Pelerinage a l'ile de Cithere (Pilgrimage to Cithera), 1717.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cythera = island of love and the island that Venus arrives on after her birth at sea
Pilgrimage to Cythera
"amor vincit omnia" - love conquers all
fetes galantes = elegant fetes or entertainments
 
Jean-Antoine Watteau, Le Pelerinage a l'ile de Cithere (Pilgrimage to Cithera), 1717.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Garden of Love

Peter Paul Rubens, The Garden of Love, c. 1638.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Signboard of Gersaint, c. 1721.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breakfastpiece

vanitas = an image in which the objects symbolize the transience of life and remind the viewer of their own impending doom. Vanitas paintings are usually still lifes or genre subjects

 
"breakfast piece"
Clara Peters, Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels, 1611.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vanitas elements:
Louis XIV portrait
Clock
Straw
Woman gazing into a mirror
Jean-Antoine Watteau, The Signboard of Gersaint, c. 1721.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Francois Boucher, Diana After the Hunt, 1745.