Ways of Seeing
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Truth and Falsity
 
The Misplaced Rhetoric of Medicine
Woman with Colonel Sanders promoting "Buckets for the Cure" campaign

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Our judgements are influenced by what we believe to be the intention of the sign
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
To present a straightforward break down of meaning, Hall offers this framework:
 
Semantic Unit
the thing that expresses meaning
 
Genre
the category of expression
 
Style
the manner of expression
 
Stereotype
the cliches or norms of expressions
 
Institution
the place or site of expression
 
Ideology
the ideas and values that are employed to justify, support or guide expression
 
Discourse
the uses of expression that create or reflect different aspects of social order; help us to form ideas through regulated forms of use and by setting the boundaries of systems
 
Myth
the stories that represent and shape individual or collective expression; help us to understand
 
Paradigm
the theories that configure expression; a way of seeing the unit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semantic Unit
orange chair
   
Genre
1970s office furnishing
   
Style
Eero Saarinen, neofuturisitc
   
Stereotype
hip and futuristic >> out dated and loud
   
Institution
wealthy business / professional clientel
   
Ideology
stylish and eye catching
   
Discourse
"In any design problem, one should seek the solution in terms of the next largest thing." Saarinen said. "If the problem is a chair, then its solution must be found in the way it relates to the room..."
 
   
Myth
"In his purist approach to design, Finnish-born Eero Saarinen sought out the essential idea and reduced it to the most effective structural solution." "Born in Finland to famed architect Eliel Saarinen and textile designer Loja Saarinen, Eero immigrated with his family to the U.S. in 1923. Settling in Michigan, Eliel co-founded the Cranbrook Academy of Art and designed most of the buildings for the campus – now a National Historic Landmark – and the young Eero worked alongside his father as a student apprentice. It was at Cranbrook that Eero met Charles Eames, beginning their lifelong collaboration. In 1934, Saarinen graduated from the School of Architecture at Yale University. As his career flourished, he was criticized for changing his style depending on his client’s needs and desires. The architect, however, saw his clients as “co-creators” and was dedicated to pushing the established boundaries of modernism, what he called the 'measly ABC.'"
 
   
Paradigm
avant-garde architectural approach that counters postmodern skepticism with an idealistic belief in the future. Neofuturistic urbanists, architects, designers and artists believe in cities releasing emotions, driven by eco-sustainability, ethical values and implementing new materials and new technologies to provide a better quality of life for city-dwellers.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
Semantic Unit
Eames lounge chair
 
Genre
mid century modern home furnishing
 
Style
Charles and Ray Eames for the Herman Miller Furniture Co., inspired by English Club Chair
 
Stereotype
"keeping up the Jones"
 
Institution
high end market / luxury buyers
 
Ideology
interest in modern art & cutting edge technology
 
Discourse
Charles and Ray Eames developed affordable but stylish furniture that could be mass-produced, with the exception of this luxury lounge chair and ottoman. (The chair was recently brought back into production and costs $5000 - $7000.) This thinking can be traced to the Bauhaus.
 
 
Myth
"Designers Charles and Ray Eames were noted for their sense of playfulness and their willingness to think outside the box. In fact, they never thought inside the box. Their lounge chair and ottoman are perfect examples. It's hard to realize—now that these pieces have become true icons—but when they were introduced, they were unlike anything anyone had seen before.
 
 
It all began in the 1940s, when Charles and Ray were playing around with plywood. They discovered new ways to mold the material with heat and pressure, which led to their development of plywood splints, glider shells, and other materiel used successfully by the U.S. Navy in World War II. When the war was over, Charles and Ray took one of those imaginative leaps they are known for: They thought they could make furniture with the same methods they had used to make splints for the Navy."
 
Paradigm
"When he was conceptualizing the chair, Charles said he wanted it to have the "warm, receptive look of a well-used first baseman's mitt." Charles's goal was that it be "a special refuge from the strains of modern living," so comfort was built into the pieces from the beginning. "Modern living" has only become more stressful in the last half-century; it's no wonder people still want to relax into that soft, luxurious "mitt."
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philip Pearlstein, Two Female Models on Eames Chair with Stool, 1976.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Semantic Unit
Eames lounge chair
   
Genre
mid century modern home furnishing
   
Style
Charles and Ray Eames for the Herman Miller Furniture Co., inspired by English Club Chair
 
   
Stereotype
"keeping up the Jones"
   
Institution
high end market / luxury buyers
   
Ideology
upper middle class consumerism
   
Discourse
Charles and Ray Eames developed affordable but stylish furniture that could be mass-produced, with the exception of this luxury lounge chair and ottoman. (The chair was recently brought back into production and costs $5000 - $7000.)
 
   
Myth
well designed objects (the chair and the painting) in our homes make US look beautiful, valuable, and worthwhile
 
   
Paradigm
elite modernism