Framing Meaning
Paper #3 Due on May 2
Julie Shafer's visit on Wednesday











Token = an individual occurrence of a symbol
Type = something symbolizing or exemplifying the ideal of a thing
Andy Warhol, Marilyn Diptych, 1962.











Ta moko
the permanent body and face marking by Maori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. Traditionally it is distinct from tattoo and tatau in that the skin was carved by uhi (chisels) rather than punctured, leaving the skin with grooves, rather than a smooth surface.
































Horatio Robley with Mokomokai, the preserved heads of M?ori, the indigenous people of New Zealand,
which became valuable trade items during the Musket Wars of the early 19th century.











"Pakeha" Tom Adamson (left), seen here with Wiremu Mutu





















Barry Ross Smith, Royal Moko, 2009.











Sanaa Hamid's project on cultural appropriation











"It almost goes without saying that we should want to avoid misunderstandings, forms of misinformation, muddles, slip-ups, oversights, and mistakes. However, given that we are subject to all kinds of personal, social, cultural, and historical biases, this is frequently difficult to achieve. For this reason, it is important to dwell on the kinds of codes, conceptions, and conventions that we are using to interpret any message that is at hand." - Hall











denotative: Michael Brown
connotative: young black male