Commentary and Voice











Meaning is also created through commentary about a work, and alongside that commentary
text / information that stands outside the main body of work and comments on it, alters the meaning of it in some way.
the nonlexical component of communication by speech, for example intonation, pitch and speed of speaking, hesitation noises, gesture, and facial expression.
































Leni Riefenstahl, Triumph of the Will, 1935.












Nikki Minaj, Only, 2014.











So...what happens when a text or voice is claimed by another who is outside that language?
the action of taking for one's own use, typically without the owner's permission
cultural appropriation
typically involving members of a dominant group who freely exploit the culture of a less privileged group - often with little understanding of the latter’s history, experience and traditions.






















Conceptual Structures relevant to the problem of cultural appropriation according to Pritchard:
normal vs. oppositional
individualism vs. self-destructive
inside the body vs. outside the body
corporeal vs. material
proper / belonging vs. mis-appropriating
Western vs. Non-Western (First World vs. Third World)
indigenous or "traditional' vs. modern / contemporary
Maori-ness vs. European-ness
pure pre-colonial vs. impure post-colonial
authentic vs. inauthentic
modernity vs. primitivism (good/bad; bad/good)
ornamentation vs. cultural property








Gwen Stefani in No Doubt's "Looking Hot" video, 2012.











Miley Cyrus, We Can't Stop, 2013.












Nikki S. Lee, The Hip Hop Project, 2001.











Nikki S. Lee, Ohio, 1999.
Nikki S. Lee, Hispanic Project, 1998.