"Interpretation is the revenge of the intellectual upon art."
- Susan Sontag
Norman Rockwell, The Connoisseur, 1962.











Writing a paper in Chicago Manual of Style


Purdue Owl's CMS NB Powerpoint


Citation Style Chart


Sample Paper written in Chicago Manual of Style Notes and Bibliography Format

































Notes on Plagiarism
How do we define plagiarism as a community of learners? What is acceptable, what is unacceptable?
Important Concepts to Consider:
common knowledge
"own work"





  • Must reference the original source
  • The text is much shorter than the original text. (For example, one may write a single page to summarize a four-page article.)
  • Must use your own words, usually with a very limited use of quotations.



  • Must reference the original source
  • The text produced may be shorter or longer than the original text
  • Must use your own words



  • Must reference the original source
  • The text produced is the exact length of the original text quoted (unless ellipses are used)
  • Use the original author’s exact words
  • Put quotation marks around the original author’s exact words
  • Include the page number of the original source from which you borrowed the author’s original language.







Templates for Introducing Quotations*
X states, “__________.”
As the world-famous scholar X explains it, “________.”
As claimed by X, “______.”
In her article _______, X suggests that “_________.”
In X’s perspective, “___________.”
X concurs when she notes, “_______.”



Templates for Explaining Quotations*
In other words, X asserts __________.
In arguing this claim, X argues that __________.
X is insisting that _________.
What X really means is that ____________.
The basis of X’s argument is that ___________.
*These templates are derived from Gerald Graff and Cathy Birkenstein's "They Say/I Say": The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing, second edition










Conceptual Structures (Review)
Truth and Falsity
Sameness and Difference
Wholes and Parts
Subjectivity and Objectivity
Appearance and Reality
Continuity and Discontinuity
Sense and Reference
Meaningful and Meaningless
Problem and Solution
Magritte, Treachery of Images, 1948.










Truth and Falsity
The Misplaced Rhetoric of Medicine
Woman with Colonel Sanders promoting "Buckets for the Cure" campaign




















Our judgements are influenced by what we believe to be the intention of the sign
































Sameness and Difference
Diane Arbus, Identical Twins, Roselle, NJ, 1967.











Gillian Wearing, Autorretrato, 2000.
Gillian Wearing, Self-Portrait at Three Years Old, 2004.


Ideal Woman Rubber Mask





















Wholes and Parts
George Braque and Pablo Picasso, 1912.





















Subjectivity and Objectivity
the blue and green spirals are the same color
































Annie Liebowitz, John Lennon and Yoko Ono, 1980.











Appearance and Reality
Assassins Creed III

































Continuity and Discontinuity
Ed Ruscha, Every Building on the Sunset Strip, 1966.











Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #21, 1978.











Sense and Reference











Lorna Simpson, Guarded Conditions, 1989.











Meaningful and Meaningless





















Problem and Solution