February 18
Design Principles

**Project #1 - What is Art? will be due on Monday, March 2

 

 

space = the area in which objects or images exist or that an object encloses

 

Tilted Arc

Richard Serra. Tilted Arc. 1981.
Fineberg, Jonathan. Art Since 1940: Strategies of Being. Second ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ. 2000.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Frida Kahlo.  Self-Portrait with Monkey.  1938.
http://www.pbs.org/weta/fridakahlo/images/works_monkey.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Raphael Sanzio. The School of Athens. 1509.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

one-point perspective = the frontal plane of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all other planes appear to recede to a single vanishing point
 
two-point perspective = a single line of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all planes appear to recede to one of two vanishing points
 
three-point perspective = only a single point of a volume is closest to the viewer, and all planes seem to recede to one of three vanishing points

 

 

 

 

 

 

One-point perspective
Two-point perspective

 

 

 

 

 

 

Kindred Spirits

Asher Brown Durand. Kindred Spirits. 1849.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

atmospheric perspective = creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere

 

 

 

 

 

 

isometric perspective = planes are rendered on a diagonal that does not recede in space

 

Anonymous. Detail of Eighteen Scholars. Song dynasty (960 - 1279).
Hanging Scroll. Ink and color on silk. 67 7/8" X 40 1/4".

Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

oblique perspective = three dimensional objects are rendered with front and back parallel

 

Bishndas, Portraits by Nanha.  Babur Supervising the Layout of the Garden of Fidelity.  Mughal, India, c. 1590.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time and motion

 

Kanga Masked Dancers.  Dogon people.  Mali, Africa.  Twentieth century.
http://www.gonomad.com/destinations/0703/mali-gallery-images/Dogon-Dancers7.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alexander Calder. Big Red. 1959.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Giacomo Balla. Dynamism of a Dog on a Leash. 1912.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Milk Drop

Harold E. Edgerton. Milk Drop. 1936.
20th Century Photography Museum Ludwig Cologne. Taschen, Koln, 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Light

 

color = the effect on our eyes of light waves of differing wavelengths and frequencies

White light refracted by a prism
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

Color exists only in light, but light itself seems colorless to the human eye
When combined, light waves make white light – the visible part of the spectrum
Individual colors are components of white light

 

 

The properties of color:
hue = the pure state of a color
value = the relative lightness or darkness of a surface
when black is added to a hue = shade
when white is added to a hue = tint
intensity = refers to the purity of a hue.  A pure hue is the most intense form of a given color.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Achromatic value scale

 

 

Chromatic value scale

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

values are manipulated to create the appearance of natural light on an object = shading

Raphael.  Madonna of the Meadow.  c. 1505.

 
values are manipulated to create the illusion of depth and volume = chiaroscuro
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Primary colors = in any medium, those colors that when mixed provide the largest number of new colors
 
Secondary = colors that are produced by two primary colors
 
Tertiary  = colors produced by a primary and a secondary color
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monochromatic = based on variations in the value and intensity of a single hue

 

James McNeill Whistler. Nocturne: Blue and Gold- Old Battersea Bridge. 1872 - 1877.
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. Sixth edition. University of North Carolina, Wilmington: Prentice Hall, Inc., 2001

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cindy Sherman. Untitled #96. 1981.
Cruz, Amanda and Elizabeth A. T. Smith.  Cindy Sherman: Retrospective.  Chicago:  Thames & Hudson, 1998.

 

 

 

 

 

Analogous = based on colors adjacent to one another on the color wheel, each containing the same pure hue

 

Red Canna

Georgia O'Keefe. Red Canna. c. 1924.
University of Arizona Museum of Art

 

 

 

 

 

 

Complementary = based on two hues directly opposite each other on the wheel

 

Keith Haring. Untitled. 1982.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Revenge of the Goldfish

Sandy Skoglund. Revenge of the Goldfish. 1981.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

warm
cool

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.
Odalisque with a Slave. 1839 - 40.
Janson, H.W. and Anthony F. Janson. History of Art. Sixth ed. Vol. 2. University of North Carolina; Prentice Hall inc., 2001. 2 vols.

Large Odalisque

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres.
Large Odalisque. 1814.

Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and
Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

composition = the arrangement of the formal elements in a work
 
Key principles:
Balance
Rhythm
Proportion and scale
Emphasis and subordination
Unity and variety
Contrast

 

 

 

 

 

 

balance = visual equilibrium in a composition

 

The Last Supper

Leonardo. The Last Supper. 1495-98.
Stokstad, Marilyn. Art History. Revised Second ed. Vol. 2. New York: Prentice Hall Inc., and Harry N. Abrams Inc., 2005.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symmetrical balance = visual weight is distributed evenly throughout the composition so that the left and right (or top and bottom) are near or exact matches

 

Identical twins

Diane Arbus. Identical Twins. 1966.
Rubinfien, Leo. "Where Diane Arbus Went." Art in America. October, 2005. 65 - 77.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asymmetrical balance = visual weights are distributed evenly in a composition but the halves are not mirror images

 

Suzuki Haranobu.  The Evening Glow of the Ando.  Edo period.  1766.
Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radial balance = when the elements of a composition visually radiate outward from a central point

 

Photo-Transformation

Lucas Samaras. Photo-Transformation. October 25, 1973.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rhythm = the regular recurrence of elements with related variations

 

Sonia Delaunay. Bal Bullier. 1913. 38 1/8" X 12'8".
http://site.voila.fr/lucien.duguey/DossierNouveau/Sonia1.JPG

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proportion = the size of one part in relation to the whole

 

Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen. Shuttlecocks. 1994. One of four.
Aluminum and fiberglass-reinforced plastic, painted with polyurethane enamel; 17' 10 1/4" high.

Duane Preble, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank, Artforms. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002) 6th ed,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scale = the size of something in relation to what we assume to be “normal”

 

Venus of Willendorf.  4 3/8” high.  c. 25,000 – 20,000 BCE.
http://www.dearauntnettie.com/images/venusofwillendorf.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emphasis = an element that is used to draw our attention
Subordination = elements that are neutral or less interesting

 

Palette of King Narmer.  c. 3000 BCE. (front)
http://www.tronchin.com/Art1A/lecture%204_files/image004.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unity = the quality of overall cohesion in a work
Variety = the element of difference in a work

 

Jose Clemente Orozco.  Zapatistas.  1931.
http://www.moma.org/images/collection/FullSizes/43373007.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contrast = the juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements

 

Detail of the main portal of the Masjid-i-Shah, or Royal Mosque.  Isfahan, Iran.  1612 – 1637.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Migrant Mother

Dorothea Lange. Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California. 1936.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gustav Klimt.  Adele Bloch-Bauer I.  1904 – 1907.
http://e-culture.multimedian.nl/poster/PICNIC06/klimt_bloch-bauer1.jpg