April 29
Early Modernism

 

 

Expressionism =

Starry Night

Vincent van Gogh. The Starry Night. 1889.

general term for art that emphasizes inner feelings and emotions over objective depiction
a modernist art movement that was a manifestation of subjective feeling toward objective reality and the world of imagination. Characterized by bold, vigorous brushwork, emphatic line, and bright color.
 
 
Impasto = thick applications of pigment that give a painting a palpable surface texture
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Van Gogh's Bedroom

Vincent Van Gogh.  The Artist's Bedroom at Arles.  1889.

Van Gogh's new way of seeing:
 
Used color symbolically, for personal expression
Exploited new, manufactured colors
Often worked straight from the paint tube
Distorted forms
Rapid brushwork
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Formalism = the concept that a work's artistic value is entirely determined by its form -- the way it is made, its purely visual aspects and its medium. Formalism emphasizes compositional elements such as color, line, shape and texture rather than realism, context and content

Alfred Stieglitz. The Steerage. 1907.

"This photographer is working in the same spirit as I am." - Pablo Picasso in response to the Steerage
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Georges Seurat. A Sunday Afternoon on La Grande Jatte. 1884 - 86.

 

 

 

 

 

 

divisionism (pointilism) = style of painting in which non-primary colors are generated, not by the mixing of pigments in the palette nor by using pigments directly, but by the visual mixing of points of primary colors, placed in close proximity to each other

 

Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte

Detail of Sunday on La Grande Jatte
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mont Ste.-Victoire Seen from Bibemus Quarry

Paul Cezanne. Mont Ste.-Victoire Seen from Bibemus Quarry. c. 1897 - 1900.
Preble, Duane, Sarah Preble and Patrick Frank. Artforms. Seventh ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2002.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cezanne's New Way of Seeing:

Still Life with Basket of Apples

Paul Cezanne. Still Life with Basket of Apples. 1890 - 94.

Not a direct representation of nature
Geometric approach to form
Open, un-blended brushstrokes
Spatial ambiguity
Breaks up space and form by looking at things from different angles, perspectives and times of the day

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
1900
Freud publishes "The Interpretation of Dreams"

Sigmund Freud

1903
Wright brother's first flight
1905
Einstein formulates theory of relativity
1912
Titanic sinks
1914

Henry Ford's Model-T plant opens

1914 - 1918
World War I
1917 - 1920
Russian Revolution
1920
Gandhi initiates peaceful protests in India aghainst British rule
1922
Formation of the Soviet Union



Hitler and Mussolini

Fascists under Benito Mussolini seize power in Italy
1926 - 1953
Stalin control the Soviet Union
1929
Great Depression begins
1933
Hitler's Nazi Party seizes power