April 1
The Baroque Era



Midterm Results
Number of students earning grade

The Scream

Edvard Munch.  The Scream.  1893.

60 - 54 points
53 - 48 points
47 - 42 points
41 - 36 points
35 - 0 points
Highest score - 58
Lowest score - 19
Average score - 39







Historical Context
1517 Beginning of Protestant Reformation
1520 Death of Raphael
1527 Sack of Rome- end of High Renaissance
1545 - 1563 Counter Reformation begins with Council of Trent
1534 Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church and establishes Church of England
1543 Copernicus publishes theory in which planets revolve around sun
  First scientific study of human anatomy based on dissections published
1550 Giorgio Vasari publishes The Lives of the Artists
1558 - 1603 Elizabeth I reigns in England
1564 - 1616 William Shakespeare
1581 Netherlands declare independence from Spain







Vermeer. Woman with a Water Pitcher.  c. 1622.

Characteristics of the Baroque Style:
Interest in light and space
Rich use of color and dramatic contrasts
Innovative illusionism
More emphasis on emotion than reason
Multi-media extravaganza
"The Baroque style favored dramatic and intense subjects, rich textures, and exaggerated lighting. It sought to convince, not through reason, but by illusion, and by overwhelming the senses and emotions."







Gianlorenzo Bernini. Saint Teresa of Avila in Ecstacy. 1645-52.
Fred S. Kleiner and Christin J. Mamiya, Gardner's Art Through the Ages. Twelfth ed. Vol. 1. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 2005. 2 vols.







"...Beside me, on the left hand, appeared an angel in bodily form, such as I am not in the habit of seeing except rarely. In his hands I saw a great golden spear, and at the iron tip there appeared to be a point on fire. This he plunged into my heart several times so that it penetrated to my entrails. When he plunged it out, I felt that he took them with it, and left me utterly consumed by the great love of God. The pain was so severe that it made me utter several moans. The sweetness caused by this intense pain is so extreme that one cannot possibly wish it to cease, or is anyone's soul then content with anything but God. This is not physical, but a spiritual pain, though the body has some share in it- even a considerable share. So gentle is this wooing which takes place between God and the soul that if anyone thinks I am lying, I pray God to grant him some experience of it."

- Excerpt from the Life of St. Teresa

Saint Teresa detail

Teresa detail







Gianlorenzo Bernini. Cornaro Chapel, Church of Santa Maria della Vittoria, Rome. 1642-52.







Cornaro family







Lucas Cranach.  Martin Luther.  1532.

Counter Reformation = the movement of self-renewal and reform within the Roman Catholic Church following the Protestant Reformation of the early 16th century and attempting to combat its influence. Its principles were formulated and adopted at the Council of Trent, 1545 -1563.