March 11
Medieval Art

 

 

Emperor Justinian

Emperor Justinian mosaic in San Vitale, Ravenna.  c. 547.
http://www.traveljournals.net/pictures/l/5/56357-famous-mosiac-of-justinian-san-vitale-05-ravena-italy.jpg

Empress Theodora

Empress Theodora mosaic in San Vitale, Ravenna.  c. 547.
http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2385/2249572412_2e876d71d0.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Justinian

Emperor Justinian mosaic in San Vitale, Ravenna.  c. 547.
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/79/Justinian_mosaik_ravenna.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Empress Theodora

Empress Theodora mosaic in San Vitale, Ravenna.  c. 547.
http://www.travelplan.it/img/ravenna02.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodora detail

detail of Theodora

 

 

 

 

 

 

Historic Context
306 - 337
Reign of Constantine
313
Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity
380
Christianity becomes official religion of the Roman Empire
394
Olympic games abolished
395
Roman empire officially divided with emperor in Rome and in Constantinople
452
Gauls sack Rome
476
Fall of the western Roman Empire
 
Eastern half becomes Byzantine Empire and survives into 15th century
 
Eastern church becomes Orthodox Church
 
Western church becomes Catholic Church
526 - 565
Reign of Justinian
726 - 843
Iconoclasm
c. 732
Moors (Islamic Arabs) capture Spain and threaten France
1095
Pope calls First Crusade
1453
Turks capture Constantinople

 

 

 

 

 

 

Byzantine Empire

The Byzantine Empire
http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/30/7030-004-C42F41FD.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basilica - found in the western Empire
Central Plan Church - popular in the eastern Empire

Diagram

Old St. Peter's Basilica.  Rome.   c. 320 - 335.

San Vitale Floor Plan

San Vitale Floor Plan
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3285/2880443609_4ae48d0c38.jpg?v=0

 

 

 

 

 

 

Madonna and Child

Madonna and Child on a Curved Throne.  13th century.
http://www.nga.gov/fcgi-bin/timage_f?object=35&image=1&c=

 

 

 

 

 

 

Iconoclastic Controversy

Iccon of Christ

Christ, Mt. Athos.  13th century
http://www.antiochianarch.org.au/Multimedia-Gallery.aspx

Icon = from the Greek word, "eikon" for image
 
"Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image or any likeness of anything that is in Heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth.  Thou shalt not bow down thyself to them, nor serve them." Second Commandment
 
Iconoclasts = image destroyers
Restricted imagery to abstract symbols & decorative elements
Led by Byzantine emperor
Supported mainly in east
Iconophiles = image lovers
Believed that Christ & his image inseparable
Led by monks
Supported in west

 

 

 

 

 

 

San Vitale Altar

San Vitale altar
http://www.sights-and-culture.com/Italy/Ravenna-San-Vitale-6240.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ of the Pentecost

Christ of the Pentecost from Saint Madeleine Cathedral, France.  1125 - 1150.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/vezelay-basilica-photos/slides/xti_0422p70.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mihrab

Mihrab, Isfahan, Iran.  1354.
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/wai/ho_39.20.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

animal style = generic term for the characteristic ornamentation of artifacts worm and carried by nomadic peoples who, for almost two millennia (BCE into CE) migrated between China and Western Europe.

Oseburg Ship

Post from the Oseburg Burial Ship c. 800 - 8334
http://teachers.sduhsd.k12.ca.us/ltrupe/ART%20History%20Web/final/chap14Medieval/Oseburg%20Burial%20Ship-Animal%20Head.jpg

 
Characterized by:
Stylized animal forms with spare & abstract use of the human figure
Heavy use of decorative elements and organic shapes
Usually found on utilitarian object or items of personal adornment
Easily and often traded

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sutton Hoo Purse Cover

Purse Cover from the Sutton Hoo Burial, England.  Before 655.  Gold and enamel.  Length 7 1/2".
http://teachers.sduhsd.k12.ca.us/ltrupe/ART%20History%20Web/final/chap14Medieval/SH%20Purse%20cover.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lindisfarne Gospel

Lindisfarne Gospel carpet page.  Late 7th century.  13" X 10".
http://danielmitsui.tripod.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderpictures/carpetpage_big.jpg

Meeting of the nomadic animal style with Christianity clearly visible in HIberno-Saxon manuscript illumination
 
Illuminated manuscript = a hand written and illustrated manuscript from the Western or Islamic traditions, commonly produced on vellum and incorporating gold and silver leaf

 

 

 

 

 

 

Chi-Rho Monogram

Ch-Rho Page from the Book of Kells.  c. 800.
http://pds4.egloos.com/pds/200704/24/55/d0012855_12042365.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notre Dame de Chartres

Notre Dame de Chartres, France.  1145 - 1513.
http://www.cedargallery.nl/nlfoto/Chartres_kathedraal.jpg

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pointed arch

The pointed arch and flying buttresses
http://www.uncp.edu/home/rwb/Flying_Buttresses.gif

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rose de France

Rose de France window from Notre Dame de Chartres, France.  c. 1233.
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/france/chartres-cathedral-pictures/window-north-c-beck.jpg

 

Close up view