Golden Nuggets

"One life is all we have and we live it as we believe in living it. But to sacrifice what you are and to live without belief, that is a fate more terrible than dying." - Joan of Arc

Joan of Arc lead the French army in defeat of the English at Orleans, which assisted Charles VII's coronation.  In gratitude for her service, the French handed her over to the British who burned her at the stake for heresy when she was just 19 years old.
Please review the materials posted on the "Preparing Your Essay to Publish" assignments on Canvas in preparation for Monday's class
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Joan of Arc at the Coronation of Charles VII, 1854.











"The sun god Ra shaped himself out of the waters of chaos, or unformed matter, and emerged sealed atop a mound of sand hardened by his own rays. By spitting (or ejaculating) he then created the gods of wetness and dryness, Tefnut and Shu, who in turn begat the male Geb (earth) and the female Nut (sky). Geb and Nut produced two sons, Osiris and Seth, and two daughters, the goddessess Isis and Nephtys.

Taking Isis as his wife, Osiris became king of Egypt. His envious brother, Seth promptly killed Osiris, hacked his body to pieces and snatched the throne for himself. Isis and her sister, Nephtys, gathered up the scattered remains of Osiris and with the help of the god Anubus (represented by a Jackal) they patched him back together [and even fashioned a phallus made of gold for him]. Despite her husband's mutilated condition, Isis conceived a son - Horus... who defeated Seth and became king of the Earth, while Osiris retired to the underworld as overseer of the realm of the dead." - Marilyn Stokstad, Art History

Isis Nursing Horus, Late Period 664 - 332 BCE.











As Friedrich "Engels's [argues in] The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884) prehistoric matriarchies were the original sites of communism - and this was a compliment! ...mothers first controlled communal property, but when agriculture was introduced (in the Neolithic [period]), man used and therefore owned the farming tools, especially the ploughs and domesticated animals. Men thus became the first sex to have private property. Of course, by that time man had figured out his biological contribution to reproduction. And in order to pass on his property to his children, he had to make sure they were indeed his, so he introduced monogamy to control the descent system. As a result, women were subordinated economically and restricted sexually." - Shari L. Thurer in The Myths of Motherhood
Greek Menstrual Dress and Culture
Menstruation in Sacred spaces
Ancient Greek Home (note the clean division between public and private spaces)











"During [a] 2500 year transitional period, in which patricarchal attitudes gained ascendency, woman was still valued for her ability to reproduce. Her fertility potential determined her worth as a commodity. But [by the ancient period] woman was valued only for her maternity. Her scope and dignity were reduced; she had become an instrument for reproduction. And now this power was not solely hers." - Shari L. Thurer in Myths of Motherhood

Aphrodite, Early 4th century BCE.
Tondo of an Attic red-figured cup, c. 490 BCE.











"Mothers are fonder than fathers of their children because they are more certain that they are their own" - Aristotle
Giovanni Pellegrini, Aphrodite and Eros, 18th century.












"It is fascinating to observe that the power shift from female to male was reflected in virtually all the ancient mythologies, as every Mother Goddess, one after the other, was deposed. This occurred after the actual subordination of mortal women, and the pattern was roughly the same. At first, an earth-centered Mother Goddess was pre-eminent. She created the world and had children as she pleased (by parthogenesis, as it were - no male needed). Next, one of her male children was promoted to lover-consort, and she eventually shared her power with him. His identity conflated with that of a creator-sky god. In the ensuing power struggle between him and the goddess, he won, and he ruled, initially, with a whole galaxy of gods. She was demoted." - Shari L. Thurer

Aison, Aphrodite and Adonis lekythos, ca. 410 BCE.










"From approximately 3100 to 600 BCE...with the coming of one God (Buddha, Yahweh, Christ, or Allah), women's standing in all realms was leveled to a position subordinate to males." "By 600 BCE, patriarchy was established over much of Europe, Asia, and Africa...and preceded the development of writing. Every written word, then, has been refracted through the prism of a male-dominated consciousness." - Shari L. Thurer in The Myths of Motherhood

Idol from Amorgos

Snake Goddess

Idol from Amorgos,  2500 – 2300 BCE.
Snake Goddess from Knossos, ca. 1650 BCE.











patriarchy = a form of social organization in which the father is the supreme authority in the family, clan, or tribe and descent is reckoned in the male line, with the children belonging to the father's clan or tribe.

To the Greeks, matriarchy represented chaos and disorder. It was in opposition to civilization and therefore, normalcy. - Shari L. Thurer
"Every woman is trouble, she has only two good times: one is the wedding, the other is her death." - Palladas
"O would that the female sex were nowhere to be found - but in my lap!" - Euripides
“AD” Painter, Women at the Fountain House,
Greek Hydria, 520 – 510 BCE.











androcentric = focused or centered on men

heterosexism = a system of negative attitudes, bias, and discrimination in favor of heterosexuality and relationships that can include the presumption that everyone is heterosexual or that opposite-sex attractions and relationships are the norm and therefore superior
eurocentism = centered on Europe or the Europeans; reflecting a tendency to interpret the world in terms of western and especially European or Anglo-American values and experiences
sexism = attitudes or behavior based on traditional stereotypes of sexual roles
Alexandros of Antioch, Venus de Milo, 101 BCE.











"Not surprisingly, there was a shift in magic, ritual, and imagery from the womb to the phallus. The number of female figurines diminished with respect to male figurines. The penis replaced the womb as the primary symbol of generation."- Shari L. Thurer in The Myths of Motherhood
Woman carrying a phallus painted
on ancient Greek vessel ca. 480 - 450 BCE
Dionysian Temple with phallic decorative elements, Delos











Washington Monument and Reflecting Pool at the National Mall





















Women are enslaved...


Attributed to Amasis Painter, Lekythos, Women Working Wool,  c. 56 BC.










Pompeii Painter, 79 – 50 BCE.
Painter in Her Studio, tomb relief from Rome, 2nd Century.










“Girls, be good to these spirits of music and poetry that breast your threshold with their scented gifts. Lift the lyre, clear and sweet, they leave with you.” - Sappho
Fresco of a woman with a writing
tablet from Pompeii, 1st century CE.











and women's magic becomes something to fear.

Odysseus, Circe and transformed man, Athenian red-figure calyx krater ca. 5th BCE.











The sirens song from O Brother Where Art Thou























Adam and Eve



The Little Mermaid

Gianlorenzo Bernini, Medusa, 1630.

Peter Paul Rubens, Adam and Eve, 1597.

Walt Disney Studios, The Little Mermaid, 1989.