Postmodern Conditions
"I am really proud to be a part in whatever way of women becoming active in the political scene. I think it was the first time that people came to terms with the reality of what it meant to have a Senate made up of 98 men and two women." - Anita Hill
Second Scalar post now due!
The Final Quiz, which will be cumulative and worth 25 points, will be available on Canvas by Friday, December 11 and must be submitted no later than midnight on Tuesday, December 15.
If you haven't already done so, please submit your Course Evaluation on Canvas!
Anita Hill testifying during Senate confirmation hearing of Justice Clarence Thomas in 1991.











Rainbow Picket
Donald Judd, Untitled, 1965.
Judy Chicago, Rainbow Picket, 1966.












Judy Chicago, The Dinner Party, 1974 - 1979.











setting for Judith

setting for Mary Wollstonecraft

setting for Virginia Woolf

More place settings
"Because we are denied knowledge of our history, we are deprived of standing upon each other's shoulders and build upon each other's hard earned accomplishments. Instead we are condemned to repeat what others have done before and thus we continually reinvent the wheel. The goal of The Dinner Party is to break this cycle." - Judy Chicago











“I felt really violated: they cut my clothes, stuck rose thorns in my stomach, one person aimed the gun at my head, and another took it away. It created an aggressive atmosphere. After exactly 6 hours, as planned, I stood up and started walking toward the public. Everyone ran away, escaping an actual confrontation.” - Marina Abramovic
Abramovic recalls the performance
Marina Abramovic, Rhythm 0, 1974.












Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.











Interior Scroll

Interior Scroll

Carolee Schneeman, Interior Scroll, 1975 - 1977.











Exerpt from Interior Scroll text :

I met a happy man
a structuralist filmmaker
--but don't call me that
it's something else I do-
he said we are fond of you
you are charming
but don't ask us
to lookat your films
we cannot
there are certain films
we cannot
look at
the personal clutter
the persistence of feelings
the hand-touch sensibility
the diaristic indulgent
the painterly mess
the dense gestalt
he said you can do as I do
take one clear process
follow its strictest
implications intellectually
establish a system of
permutations establish
their visual set...

he protested
you are unable to appreciate
the system grid
the numerical rational
the Pytagoream cues-

I saw my failings were worthy
of dismissal I'd be buried
alive my works lost...

scroll detail











Ana Mendieta, Silueta Works in Mexico, 1973 – 1977.











Steel Magnesium Plain

Carl Andre, Steel Magnesium Plain, 1969. 6 X 6 ft.











A 911 call recorded Andre saying: "My wife is an artist, and I'm an artist, and we had a quarrel about the fact that I was more, eh, exposed to the public than she was. And she went to the bedroom, and I went after her, and she went out the window." - Naked by the Window by Robert Katz
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.
Ana Mendieta, Earth Body Figure, 1973.


NY Times article on 2011 Carl Andre Monograph


Mira Schor, "Still 'Naked by the Window'"











Hand/ Heart

Homage to Carl Andre

Carolee Schneemann, Hand/ Heart for Mendieta, 1986.  Blood, ashes & syrup on snow.
Rachel Lachowicz, Homage to Carl Andre (After Carl Andre's Magnesium and Zinc, 1969), 1991.  Lipstick and wax.  72 X 72 X 3/8".











Postmodernism = name for many stylistic reactions to, and developments from, modernism. Postmodern style is often characterized by eclecticism, digression, collage, pastiche, and irony. Postmodern theorists see postmodern art as a reversal of well-established modernist systems, such as the roles of artist versus audience, seriousness versus play, or high culture versus kitsch.


Elizabeth Murray, Painter's Progress, 1981.











"Bourgeois's work is a meditation on the past, and also a release of anger - chiefly, it seems from her own account, anger about a blocked and frustrated childhood, the sadistic teasing to which she was subjected by an anglophile father, and (most of all) the presence in her childhood home of her father's mistress." - Edward Lucie - Smith

Destruction of the Father

Louise Bourgeois, The Destruction of the Father, 1974.











Louise Bourgeois, Filette (Little Girl) (Sweeter Version), 1968.











Louise Bourgeois, Fillette (Little Girl), 1968.
Robert Mapplethorpe, Louise Bourgeois with Fillette, 1982.












Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #6, 1979.










pastiche = an artistic technique whereby a generally light-hearted tongue-in-cheek imitation of another's style is employed; although jocular it is usually respectful (as opposed to parody, which is not)

Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #48, 1979.











Leave It to Beaver, 1957 - 1963
The Donna Reed Show, 1958 - 1966
Gidget, 1959
Psycho, 1960











Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #21, 1979.











Laura Mulvey's Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema, 1973
Male gaze = a fundamental concept to Feminist theory which relates to the way men look at women, how women look at themselves and other women, and the sociological effects of this method of looking.
Some feminists posit that since it is almost always the female who is being gazed upon by the male, the man exhibits power over the woman.
But who is the assumed viewer in a Sherman image?
Cindy Sherman, Untitled Film Still #34, 1979.











We Don't Need Another Hero
Barbara Kruger, We don't need another hero, 1987.
Appropriation = the use of found or borrowed elements in the creation of a new artwork











Barbara Kruger, Man's Best Friend, 1987.

Barbara Kruger, Your body is a battleground, 1989.












Kathleen Hanna

The Third Wave = term identified with several diverse strains of feministactivity and study beginning in the early 1990s. The movement arose as a response to perceived failures and backlash against initiatives and movements created by the second wave.
Characteristics of Third Wave Feminism:
  • Embrace diversity and multiplicity
  • Often reject essentialist approaches that reduce the female experience to biology
  • Take a post-structuralist consideration of gender and sexuality
  • Celebration of sexuality as a positive aspect of femininity and as a source of empowerment
Kathleen Hanna of Riot Grrrl in 1996











Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  1989.











Do Women Have to Be Naked?

Guerrilla Girls, Do Women Have to Be Naked?  2005.











Guerrilla Girls, Untitled, 1989.
















Catherine Opie, Self-Portrait, 1993.











Perverse Self-Portrait

Self-Portrait Nursing

Assorted definitions of "pervert" =
to lead astray morally
to turn away from the right course
to turn to an improper use; misapply
to bring to a less excellent state; vitiate; debase
Pathology, to change to what is unnatural or abnormal
Catherine Opie, Self-Portrait/ Pervert, 1994.
Catherine Opie, Self-Portrait Nursing, 2004.