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  • Please remember to post on the Canvas Discussion Board! We have 7 weeks, 14 classes, and 21 opportunites left to earn credit for ten posts that connect assigned readings to lecture topics.

Quiz 2 will be posted to Canvas by the end of the day, Friday, October 23, and must be submitted before midnight on Monday, October 26!

Rosalba Carriera, Flora, 1757.











1648 Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture founded in France
Academies grew out of the salons held at the Hôtel de Rambouillet,
which discussed literature during the late 1620s and early 1630s.
Louis XIV proclaimed in his founding address that the intention of the Academy
was to reward all worthy artists "without regard to the difference of sex."

1648 - 1706

Seven women gained admittance to Academy

Academy declared itself closed to women
Limit of four women members at any one time
  • Women not admitted to Academy school
  • Women banned from competing for Prix de Rome
Odette Pauvert became first woman to win the Prix
Anne Seymour Damer, The Damerian Apollo, 1789.











1664 French Academy begins to hold annual Salons
To show at a salon, a young artist needed to be received by the Académie by first submitting an artwork to the jury; only Académie artists could be shown in the salons. Salons were started under Louis XIV and continued until 1704. After a hiatus, the salons started up again in 1725.

A salon, the Salon and salon style

  • A salon = a fashionable assemblage of notables held by custom at the home of a prominent person
  • The Salon = annual display of art established as a venue to show the works of Academy members
  • Salon style = method in which artworks are exhibited in a gallery that utilizes the maximum amount of space possible
Piero Antonio Martini, The Paris Salon of 1785.











Hierarchy of genres

Abduction of the Sabine Women

History painting = scenes with narrative content derived from mythology, Christian history, literature and historical events
Nicolas Poussin, The Abduction of the Sabine Women, c. 1633 - 1634.











During a visit to Paris in 1721, Carriera's paintings were in high demand. She portrayed many important nobles, including the King and members of his court and was elected to the Academy by acclamation.
pastels = crayons of pulverized pigment bound to a chalk base by weak gum water

Charles Sackville

Portrait of Young Louis

Rosalba Carriera, Charles Sackville, c. 1730.
Rosalba Carriera, Portrait of Louis XV, 1720.











In 1770, Dauphin Louis-Auguste and Austrian Archduchess Maria Antonia were married.
He was 15 and she was 14. and they'd known each other for two days.


Louis c. 1770
Joseph Ducreux, Marie Antoinette, 1768.











In 1774, Louis Auguste became the French King, and Marie Antoinette became the Queen of France.


Joseph Siffred Duplessis, 
Louis XVI in Coronation Robes, 1777.
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun,
Marie Antoinette, 1778.









Upon his sucession to the throne, Louis gave Marie Le Petit Trianon for her sole enjoyment and privacy.
The people of France were outraged.


Le Petit Trianon













18th-century pornographic portrayal of
Marie Antoinette and the duchess of Pequigny
Cartoon satirizing Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette











In 1781, after seven years of marriage, Marie Antoinette gave birth to daughter Marie Therese.
Marie Antoinette would have at least three miscarriages, and give birth to three more children.
Marie Antoinette's Bedroom at Versailles











In 1783 Adelaide Labille Guiard and Elisabeth Vigee Lebrun were elected to the French Academy.

The Academy protested the election of Lebrun (and the idea of more than one female admission
at one time). However, under Marie's pressure, Louis overruled the decision and ordered the election.


Adelaide Labille-Guiard, Self-Portrait with Two Pupils, 1785.
Elisabeth Louise Vigee-Lebrun, Self-portrait in Straw Hat, 1782.