"I am an invisible man. No, I am not a spook like those who haunted Edgar Allan Poe, nor am I one of your Hollywood - movie ectoplasms. I am a man of substance, flesh, and bone, fiber and liquids - and I might even be said to possess a mind." - Ralph Ellison, Invisible Man
Actress Abie Irabor will be our visiting lecturer next Tuesday. Please log in on time and ready to engage!!! (In other words, it can be heartbreakingly difficult to speak to a group of people who do not seem to be listening.)
Please take a look at the "Questions for Guests" extra credit assignment on Canvas!
Augusta Savage, Lift Every Voice and Sing, 1934











Edouard Manet, Olympia, 1863.











Frederic Bazille, Young Woman with Peonies, 1870.











Elizabeth Colomba, Laure (Portrait of a Negresse), 2018.
Elizabeth Colomba, The Portrait, n.d.











1865 - 1877
W. E. B. Du Bois, Black Reconstruction in America 1860-1880, 1935
  • 1862 - 1863 Emancipation Proclamation frees nearly 4 million enslaved people
    • 1862 thousands of enslaved people head to Union lines to fight with the Union Army
    • Over 200,000 Blacks served in the Union Army and Navy
  • 1864 Abraham Lincoln (Republican) chose Tennessee Democrat, Andrew Johnson as his VP running mate
  • 1865 Abraham Lincoln assassinated by Confederate spy, John Wilkes Booth

Presidential Reconstruction

  • 1865 13th Amendment abolishes slavery in the United States (except for prisoners)
    • The (non-human) property of Confederates who pledged loyalty to the Union and agreed to support the 13th Amendment was returned.
    • By 1866, Johnson had granted 7,000 pardons to Confederate officials and owners of large taxable estates










1866 - 1870s

Redemption = return to white supremacy and removal of rights for Black folks

  • 1866 First group to call itself the "Ku Klux Klan" established in Tennesee by Confederate veterans
  • Under President Johnson southern states introduce restrictive "black codes" taxing Blacks who were not farmers or servants; barring Blacks from owning guns; respite in orphanages; playing in parks; education in schools; and taxing their dogs.









Radical Reconstruction
  • After vetoing a Civil Rights bill, Radical Republicans in Congress impeach President Johnson
  • 1868 14th Amendment establishes automatic citizenship for people born in the U.S. and equal civil rights to emancipated people
    • If a state denied Black men suffrage, the state's representatives in Congress would be reduced.
    • Barred ex-Confederates from holding state or national office.

  • Black Americans took up voting with enthusiasm, electing numerous Black representatives at the federal and state levels
    • First black US Senator, Hiram Rhodes Revels elected in 1870
    • First public schools admitting Black children in the South are established
  • 1870 15th Amendment limits state and federal power to prevent citizens from voting

Colored Conventions Project

Barry Lawrence, The First Colored Senator and Representatives in the 41st and 42nd Congress of the United States, 1872.











D. W. Griffith, Birth of a Nation, 1915











Edmonia Lewis, Forever Free, 1867.

Edmonia Lewis, Hygeia, 1872.











Neoclassicism = a revival of the many styles and spirit of classic antiquity inspired directly from the classical period, which coincided and reflected the ideals of the Age of Enlightenment, and was initially a reaction against the excesses of the preceding Rococo style. The Neoclassic style can be traced to the establishment of formal archaeology, and is associated with the writings of Johann Winckelmann who praised the simple idealism of Greek art.


Romanticism =  a 19th century artistic trend that chronologically overlapped with Neoclassicism but tended to be intuitive rather than rational, subjective rather than objective, and passionate rather than unemotional. Romanticism was partly a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, and the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity.


Raft of the Medusa
Jacques-Louis David, Oath of the Horatii, 1784 - 1785.
Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, 1818 - 1819.