Institutional Critique
''The world is full of objects, more or less interesting; I do not wish to add any more. I prefer, simply, to state the existence of things in terms of time and place.''

- Douglas Huebler, 1970
Douglas Huebler, Variable Piece #70, 1970 - 1997.











Marcel Broodthaers, La Salle Blanche, 1975.











"From 1968 to 1972, he operated the Musée d’Art Moderne, Département des Aigles (Museum of Modern Art,
Department of Eagles), a traveling museum dedicated not to his work as an artist but to the role
of the institution itself and the function of art in society..."

Marcel Broodthaers, The Musée d’Art Moderne, Département des Aigles (Museum of Modern Art, Department of Eagles), 1972.











1968 and Civil Unrest
  • North Korea captures US spy ship and takes crew hostage.
  • North Vietnam launches Tet offensive eventually leading to US withdrawal.
  • Czechoslovakia invaded by Russia.
  • Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King assassinated.
  • Olympic medalists, Tommie Smith and John Carlos raised their fists during the National Anthem to protest racism.
  • Preceding the opening of the Olympics, up to 300 students and civilians protesting in demand of social, political, and educational reforms are killed by the Mexican government.
  • German students protest capitalism and the exploitation of the common man.
  • French student and worker strikes nearly bring down the government .
  • Students at Columbia University, NYU, Kent State and others protest wars in Vietnam & Cambodia, the draft, and institutionalized racism.
  • East LA Walkouts/Blowouts by Chicano/a students against unequal conditions in Los Angeles Unified School District high schools demand equity in education.
  • Star Trek airs first interracial kiss on US television.
  • Worst oil spill yet off the coast of Santa Barbara leads to the establishment of the EPA and largest oil reserve in North America discovered in Alaska.











He expected a crowd commensurate with the size of the interest generated by the occupation of the museum. Thus, he scrounged crates for people to sit on, decorated his space with postcards of art, and as a conversation prompt stuck the words “Museum” on the door. Later a curator, doing what curators do, would invite him to restage this talk-space as an artwork for a show in Düsseldorf, a proposition that he first resisted on the grounds that the original action had been “against the established institution of the museum.” - Ben Davis, Artnet
Marcel Broodthaers, Museum, Museum, 1972.











Richard Serra, Strike to Roberta and Rudy, 1969. 8 ft. X 24 ft. X 1 inch.











"From inside the gallery, the perfectly square opening framed the street beyond as a 'picture,' an aestheticized object submitted to the controlling conditions of the museum, with its presumption about the specialness, or autonomy, of the experience it provides; while from the street side, the yawning orifice expressed the way the museum's privilege had been breached, rendered continuous with the conditions of its surrounds."
- Art Since 1900

Michael Asher, Pomona College Museum, 1970.











Michael Asher, Pomona College Project, 1970.











"Would the fact that Governor Rockefeller has not denounced President Nixon's Indochina Policy
be a reason for your not voting for him in November?"


Hans Haacke, MoMA Poll, 1970.











Hans Haacke, Shapolski et al. Manhattan Real Estate Holdings,
a Real-Time Social System
, as of May 1, 1971.



Hans Haacke on Fighting the Establishment