"Museums are tombs, and it looks like everything is turning into a museum."
Spiral Jetty
- Robert Smithson
Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1970. (Rozel Point, Utah)











Robert Smithson's Spiral Jetty made pink by algae in the Great Salt Lake, 2011.











A Bar at the Folies-Bergere

The term "modernism"
develops out of the avant-garde

Modernism = philosophy that affirms the power of human beings to make, improve, deconstruct and reshape their lives, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation.  Rooted in urban culture, where leisure activities as welll as daily necessities are available commercially, modernity refers to the condition of post-industrial, capitalist society. Associated with ideas of progress and novelty, modernism reflects the dominant ethos of a society in which consumption plays a central role in one's daily activities. Because of its capitalist base, modernity emphasizes change and continual improvement often at the expense of the worker.

Edouard Manet. A Bar at the Folies-Bergere. 1881 - 1882.











Avant-garde = artists or works that are novel or experimental
relates to military term for soldiers who explore battlefield ahead of advancing army
suggests small group of intellectuals who push the boundaries of what is accepted as the norm
Man Ray, Cadeau (Gift), c. 1958.











Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (1964 replica).
Sherrie Levine, After Duchamp, 1991.











Andrew Wyeth. Christina's World. 1948.
Jackson Pollock. No. 5. 1948.











It's All in the City
Wols, It's All Over the City, 1947.
Francis Bacon, Painting, 1946.











existentialism = a 20th century philosophy that is centered upon the analysis of existence and of the way man finds himself existing in the world, the regards human existence as not exhaustively describabble or understandable in scientific terms, and that stresses the freedom and responsibility of the individual

Man Pointing

Alberto Giacometti, Man Pointing, 1947.











Robert Frank, Trolley- New Orleans, 1955 - 1956.
Robert Rauschenberg, Canyon, 1959.











32 Campbell's Soup Cans

Claes Oldenburg, Pie A La Mode, 1962.

Andy Warhol, 32 Campbell's Soup Cans, 1961 - 2. Acrylic on canvas.











Jackson Pollock
"When pop art appeared in the 1960s, with its references to cartoons, consumer products, and other elements of shared culture, the limitaitons of formalism became evident, and a broader range of theories surfaced, including postmodernism, poststructuralism, feminism, and postcolonialism." - Jean Robertson and Craig McDaniel

Robert Arneson, Jackson Pollock, 1983.












Structuralism = philosophical approach that analyzes society by looking at cultural phenomena, particularly signs, that have hidden underlying meanings that can be decoded
"Blam" source material
The Cuban Missle Crisis
Roy Lichtenstein, Blam, 1962.











Lucio Fontana, Conceito Espacial, 1968.
Robert Morris, Untitled, 1969.











John Baldessari, Perfect Painting, 1967 - 1968.
Dan Flavin, Monument I For V. Tatlin, 1964.











Cut Piece
Rope Piece
Yoko Ono, Cut Piece, 1965.
Carnegie Hall.

Eva Hesse, Untitled (Rope Piece), 1966.











Post-Structuralism = philosophical approach based on the idea that words and photographs are unstable and cannot be trusted, and that everything is a momentary construction with no ultimate meaning or truth.
Edward Ruscha, The Los Angeles County Museum on Fire, 1968.











Robert Smithson, Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970.











Partially Buried Woodshed
Partially Buried Woodshed
Partially Buried Woodshed
Robert Smithson, Partially Buried Woodshed, 1970.
in progress
current state












John Filo, Kent State Massacre, 1970.



















Mike Kelley. More Love Hours Than Can Ever Be Repaid. 1987.












Takashi Murakami.  Tan Tan Bo.  2001.











Banksy. If Graffitti Changed Anything..., London. 2011.











Marilyn Minter. Stuffed. 2003.











Giant with Fairies

Matthew Barney. Cremaster 5. 1997.











Charles the First

Jean-Michel Basquiat. Charles the First. 1982.











Cindy Sherman. Untitled Film Still #6. 1979.











Alfredo Jaar. May, 2011.











Millie Wilson. Some People (Boys with Sticks) and (Boys Looking). 2013.











Ken Gonzalez Day. About a hundred yards from the road (from the Hang Trees series). 2002.











Francis Bacon, Two Studies for Self-Portrait, 1977.









Walton Ford. The Island. 2009.











Cala Lily

Robert Mapplethorpe. Calla Lily. 1984.
Robert Mapplethorpe. Charles. 1985.












Catherine Opie.  Ron Cutting Divinity. 2000.












Mendieta. Glass on Face Imprint. 1972.
Mendieta. Glass on Body Imprint. 1972.











Tilted Arc

Richard Serra. Tilted Arc. 1981.












Marcus Harvey. Myra. 1995.  9' X 11'.











Cowboy 2

Richard Prince. Untitled Cowboys #2.1989.











Oliver in a Tutu

Catherine Opie. Oliver in a Tutu. 2004.