Emigres & Universal Voices
Thesis Proposal Due on Blackboard!












The 1913 Armory Show introduces radical European abstraction to America for the first time


Armory Show Main Hall

Armory Show Main Hall











Nude Descending a Staircase

Marcel Duchamp, Nude Descending a Staircase, 1912.





















U.S. Postal Stamp Commemorating
Armory Show, 1998.











Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1917 (1964 replica).











Alfred Stieglitz, photograph of Fountain, 1917.
Baroness Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven











More on Duchamp's Fountain










During the 1920s and the 1930s American artists sought to find an artistic identity
that was uniquely expressive of the American experience.

American Regionalism

Early Sunday Morning
American Gothic

Edward Hopper, Early Sunday Morning, 1930.

Grant Wood, American Gothic, 1930.











Red Canna
Pepper #30
Georgia O'Keefe, Red Canna, c. 1924.
Edward Weston, Pepper #30, 1930.











Horace Pippin, Interior, 1944.
Jacob Lawrence, Bar ‘n Grill, 1937.











Migrant Mother

Dorothea Lange, Migrant Mother, Nipomo, California, 1936.











"I had to go to France to appreciate Iowa." - Grant Wood


Grant Wood, Young Corn, 1931.











"I wallowed in every cockeyed ism that came along, and it took me ten years
to get all that modernist dirt out of my system." - Thomas Hart Benton


Thomas Hart Benton, The Arts of the West, 1932.











Thomas Hart Benton, The Ballad of the Jealous Lover of Lone Green Valley, 1934.











"While many East Coast critics branded the Regionalists as reactionary and provincial, the artists themselves often espoused progressive, populist, and socialist ideals. Many felt that modernist art was inaccessible to working class people, and they hoped to create images that would reflect and ennoble the lives of the rural poor. By representing the Midwestern landscape and its inhabitants, Regionalists celebrated an underclass of people whose lives were often ignored in the cultural centers of urban America." - Museum of Art and Archaeology, University of Missouri
Thomas Hart Benton, America Today, 1930 - 1931.












The Mexican Muralists - "Los Tres Grandes"
Jose Clemente Orozco, David Alfaro Siquieros & Diego Rivera
American artists identified with the Mexican Muralists because they sought many of the same goals:
  • In search of a distinctive national imagery and style
  • Belief in use art as a vehicle for social change
  • Embraced the notion that art was for "the people" rather than the wealthy elite

Jose Clemente Orozco, Zapata, 1930.












Jose Clemente Orozco, Prometheus, 1930.











Frary Dining Hall, Pomona College











David Siqueiros, America Tropical, 1932.










Siqueiros on the roof of the Italina Hall with America Tropical in background
America Tropical before restoration











America Tropical under viewing platform today











Man at the Crossroads

Diego Rivera, Man at the Crossroads, 1932 (destroyed before completion).











Diego Rivera, Man, Controller of the Universe, 1934.
Fresco at the Museo del Palacio de Bellas Artes, Mexico City.